## Effective Potentials: Graphical Version

• assignment Yukawa

assignment Homework

##### Yukawa
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

In a solid, a free electron doesn't see” a bare nuclear charge since the nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of other electrons. The nucleus will look like the Coulomb potential close-up, but be screened” from far away. A common model for such problems is described by the Yukawa or screened potential: $$U(r)= -\frac{k}{r} e^{-\frac{r}{\alpha}}$$

1. Graph the potential, with and without the exponential term. Describe how the Yukawa potential approximates the “real” situation. In particular, describe the role of the parameter $\alpha$.
2. Draw the effective potential for the two choices $\alpha=10$ and $\alpha=0.1$ with $k=1$ and $\ell=1$. For which value(s) of $\alpha$ is there the possibility of stable circular orbits?

• computer Effective Potentials

computer Mathematica Activity

30 min.

##### Effective Potentials
Central Forces 2023 (3 years) Students use a pre-written Mathematica notebook or a Geogebra applet to explore how the shape of the effective potential function changes as the various parameters (angular momentum, force constant, reduced mass) are varied.
• group Gravitational Potential Energy

group Small Group Activity

60 min.

##### Gravitational Potential Energy

Students examine a plastic “surface” graph of the gravitational potential energy of an Earth-satellite system to explore the properties of gravitational potential energy for a spherically symmetric system.
• assignment Hockey

assignment Homework

##### Hockey
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

Consider the frictionless motion of a hockey puck of mass $m$ on a perfectly circular bowl-shaped ice rink with radius $a$. The central region of the bowl ($r < 0.8a$) is perfectly flat and the sides of the ice bowl smoothly rise to a height $h$ at $r = a$.

1. Draw a sketch of the potential energy for this system. Set the zero of potential energy at the top of the sides of the bowl.
2. Situation 1: the puck is initially moving radially outward from the exact center of the rink. What minimum velocity does the puck need to escape the rink?
3. Situation 2: a stationary puck, at a distance $\frac{a}{2}$ from the center of the rink, is hit in such a way that it's initial velocity $\vec v_0$ is perpendicular to its position vector as measured from the center of the rink. What is the total energy of the puck immediately after it is struck?
4. In situation 2, what is the angular momentum of the puck immediately after it is struck?
5. Draw a sketch of the effective potential for situation 2.
6. In situation 2, for what minimum value of $\vec v_0$ does the puck just escape the rink?

• assignment Scattering

assignment Homework

##### Scattering
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

Consider a very light particle of mass $\mu$ scattering from a very heavy, stationary particle of mass $M$. The force between the two particles is a repulsive Coulomb force $\frac{k}{r^2}$. The impact parameter $b$ in a scattering problem is defined to be the distance which would be the closest approach if there were no interaction (See Figure). The initial velocity (far from the scattering event) of the mass $\mu$ is $\vec v_0$. Answer the following questions about this situation in terms of $k$, $M$, $\mu$, $\vec v_0$, and $b$. ()It is not necessarily wise to answer these questions in order.)

1. What is the initial angular momentum of the system?
2. What is the initial total energy of the system?
3. What is the distance of closest approach $r_{\rm{min}}$ with the interaction?
4. Sketch the effective potential.
5. What is the angular momentum at $r_{\rm{min}}$?
6. What is the total energy of the system at $r_{\rm{min}}$?
7. What is the radial component of the velocity at $r_{\rm{min}}$?
8. What is the tangential component of the velocity at $r_{\rm{min}}$?
9. What is the value of the effective potential at $r_{\rm{min}}$?
10. For what values of the initial total energy are there bound orbits?
11. Using your results above, write a short essay describing this type of scattering problem, at a level appropriate to share with another Paradigm student.

• face Ideal Gas

face Lecture

120 min.

##### Ideal Gas
Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

These notes from week 6 of Thermal and Statistical Physics cover the ideal gas from a grand canonical standpoint starting with the solutions to a particle in a three-dimensional box. They include a number of small group activities.
• computer Visualization of Quantum Probabilities for the Hydrogen Atom

computer Mathematica Activity

30 min.

##### Visualization of Quantum Probabilities for the Hydrogen Atom
Central Forces 2023 (3 years) Students use Mathematica to visualize the probability density distribution for the hydrogen atom orbitals with the option to vary the values of $n$, $\ell$, and $m$.
• assignment Undo Formulas for Reduced Mass (Geometry)

assignment Homework

##### Undo Formulas for Reduced Mass (Geometry)
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

The figure below shows the position vector $\vec r$ and the orbit of a “fictitious” reduced mass $\mu$.

1. Suppose $m_1=m_2$, Sketch the position vectors and orbits for $m_1$ and $m_2$ corresponding to $\vec{r}$. Describe a common physics example of central force motion for which $m_1=m_2$.
2. Repeat, for $m_2>m_1$.

• assignment Find Force Law: Logarithmic Spiral Orbit

assignment Homework

##### Find Force Law: Logarithmic Spiral Orbit
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

In science fiction movies, characters often talk about a spaceship “spiralling in” right before it hits the planet. But all orbits in a $1/r^2$ force are conic sections, not spirals. This spiralling in happens because the spaceship hits atmosphere and the drag from the atmosphere changes the shape of the orbit. But, in an alternate universe, we might have other force laws.

Find the force law for a mass $\mu$, under the influence of a central-force field, that moves in a logarithmic spiral orbit given by $r = ke^{\alpha \phi}$, where $k$ and $\alpha$ are constants.

• assignment Distribution function for double occupancy statistics

assignment Homework

##### Distribution function for double occupancy statistics
Orbitals Distribution function Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

Let us imagine a new mechanics in which the allowed occupancies of an orbital are 0, 1, and 2. The values of the energy associated with these occupancies are assumed to be $0$, $\varepsilon$, and $2\varepsilon$, respectively.

1. Derive an expression for the ensemble average occupancy $\langle N\rangle$, when the system composed of this orbital is in thermal and diffusive contact with a resevoir at temperature $T$ and chemical potential $\mu$.

2. Return now to the usual quantum mechanics, and derive an expression for the ensemble average occupancy of an energy level which is doubly degenerate; that is, two orbitals have the identical energy $\varepsilon$. If both orbitals are occupied the toal energy is $2\varepsilon$. How does this differ from part (a)?

• Central Forces 2023 (2 years)

Consider a mass $\mu$ in the potential shown in the graph below. You give the mass a push so that its initial angular momentum is $\ell\ne 0$ for a given fixed value of $\ell$.

1. Give the definition of a central force system and briefly explain why this situation qualifies.
2. Make a sketch of the graph of the effective potential for this situation.
3. How should you push the puck to establish a circular orbit? (i.e. Characterize the initial position, direction of push, and strength of the push. You do NOT need to solve any equations.)
4. BRIEFLY discuss the possible orbit shapes that can arise from this effective potential. Include a discussion of whether the orbits are open or closed, bound or unbound, etc. Make sure that you refer to your sketch of the effective potential in your discussions, mark any points of physical significance on the sketch, and describe the range of parameters relevant to each type of orbit. Include a discussion of the role of the total energy of the orbit.