The internal energy is of any ideal gas can be written as
\begin{align}
U &= U(T,N)
\end{align}
meaning that the internal energy depends only on the number of
particles and the temperature, but not the volume.^{*}

The ideal gas law
\begin{align}
pV &= Nk_BT
\end{align}
defines the relationship between \(p\), \(V\) and \(T\). You may take the
number of molecules \(N\) to be constant. Consider the free adiabatic
expansion of an ideal gas to twice its volume. “Free expansion”
means that no work is done, but also that the process is also
neither quasistatic nor reversible.

What is the change in entropy of the gas? How do you know
this?

A diesel
engine requires no spark plug. Rather, the air in the cylinder is
compressed so highly that the fuel ignites spontaneously when
sprayed into the cylinder.

In this problem, you may treat air as an ideal gas, which satisfies
the equation \(pV = Nk_BT\). You may also use the property of an
ideal gas that the internal energy depends only on the temperature
\(T\), i.e. the internal energy does not change for an isothermal
process. For
air at the relevant range of temperatures the heat capacity at
fixed volume is given by \(C_V=\frac52Nk_B\), which means the internal energy
is given by \(U=\frac52Nk_BT\).

Note: in this problem you are expected to use only the equations
given and fundamental physics laws. Looking up the formula in a textbook
is not considered a solution at this level.

If the air is initially at room temperature
(taken as \(20^{o}C\)) and is then compressed adiabatically to \(\frac1{15}\)
of the original volume, what final temperature is attained (before fuel
injection)?