Consider the bottle in a bottle problem in a previous problem set, summarized here.

A small bottle of
helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains
vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium
leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth
the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated.

The volume of the small bottle is 0.001 m^{23} and the volume of the big bottle is 0.01 m^{3}. The initial state of the gas in the small bottle was \(p=106\) Pa and its temperature \(T=300\) K. Approximate the helium gas as an ideal gas of equations of state \(pV=Nk_BT\) and \(U=\frac32 Nk_BT\).

How many molecules of gas does the large bottle contain? What is the final temperature of the gas?

Compute the integral \(\int \frac{{\mathit{\unicode{273}}} Q}{T}\) and the change of entropy \(\Delta S\) between the initial state (gas in the small bottle) and the final state (gas leaked in the big bottle).

The internal energy is of any ideal gas can be written as
\begin{align}
U &= U(T,N)
\end{align}
meaning that the internal energy depends only on the number of
particles and the temperature, but not the volume.^{*}

The ideal gas law
\begin{align}
pV &= Nk_BT
\end{align}
defines the relationship between \(p\), \(V\) and \(T\). You may take the
number of molecules \(N\) to be constant. Consider the free adiabatic
expansion of an ideal gas to twice its volume. “Free expansion”
means that no work is done, but also that the process is also
neither quasistatic nor reversible.

What is the change in entropy of the gas? How do you know
this?

Students will determine the change in entropy (positive, negative, or none) for both the system and surroundings in three different cases. This is followed by an active whole-class discussion about where the entropy comes from during an irreversible process.

Students work out heat and work for rectangular paths on \(pV\) and \(TS\) plots. This gives with computing heat and work, applying the First Law, and recognizing that internal energy is a state function, which cannot change after a cyclic process.