group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Time Dependence for a Quantum Particle on a Ring
Theoretical Mechanics (6 years)

Quantum Ring Sequence

Students calculate probabilities for energy, angular momentum, and position as a function of time for an initial state that is a linear combination of energy/angular momentum eigenstates for a particle confined to a ring written in bra-ket notation. This activity helps students build an understanding of when they can expect a quantity to depend on time and to give them more practice moving between representations.

assignment_ind Small White Board Question

10 min.

##### Vector Differential--Rectangular
Vector Calculus II 23 (8 years)

Integration Sequence

In this introductory lecture/SWBQ, students are given a picture as a guide. They then write down an algebraic expression for the vector differential in rectangular coordinates for coordinate equals constant paths.

This activity can be done as a mini-lecture/SWBQ as an introduction to Vector Differential--Curvilinear where students find the vector differential in cylindrical and spherical coordinates..

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Magnetic Field Due to a Spinning Ring of Charge
Static Fields 2023 (7 years)

Power Series Sequence (E&M)

Ring Cycle Sequence

Students work in small groups to use the Biot-Savart law $\vec{B}(\vec{r}) =\frac{\mu_0}{4\pi}\int\frac{\vec{J}(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})\times \left(\vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\right)}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert^3} \, d\tau^{\prime}$ to find an integral expression for the magnetic field, $\vec{B}(\vec{r})$, due to a spinning ring of charge.

In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for $\vec{B}(\vec{r})$ either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.

computer Mathematica Activity

30 min.

##### Visualizing Combinations of Spherical Harmonics
Central Forces 2023 (3 years) Students observe three different plots of linear combinations of spherical combinations with probability density represented by color on the sphere, distance from the origin (polar plot), and distance from the surface of the sphere.

assignment Homework

##### Phase 2
quantum mechanics relative phase overall phase measurement probability Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years) Consider the three quantum states: $\left\vert \psi_1\right\rangle = \frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_2\right\rangle = \frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle- i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_3\right\rangle = -\frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle$
1. For each of the $\left|{\psi_i}\right\rangle$ above, calculate the probabilities of spin component measurements along the $x$, $y$, and $z$-axes.
2. Look For a Pattern (and Generalize): Use your results from $(a)$ to comment on the importance of the overall phase and of the relative phases of the quantum state vector.

accessibility_new Kinesthetic

10 min.

##### Using Arms to Represent Overall and Relative Phase in Spin 1/2 Systems
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years)

Arms Sequence for Complex Numbers and Quantum States

Students, working in pairs, use the Arms representations to represent states of spin 1/2 system. Through a short series of instructor-led prompts, students explore the difference between overall phase (which does NOT distinguish quantum states) and relative phase (which does distinguish quantum states).

assignment_ind Small White Board Question

10 min.

##### Dot Product Review
Static Fields 2023 (7 years)

This small whiteboard question (SWBQ) serves as a quick review of the dot product. It is also an opportunity to help students see the advantages of knowing many different representations of and facts about a physical concept.

keyboard Computational Activity

120 min.

##### Kinetic energy
Computational Physics Lab II 2022

Students implement a finite-difference approximation for the kinetic energy operator as a matrix, and then use numpy to solve for eigenvalues and eigenstates, which they visualize.

assignment Homework

##### Line Sources Using Coulomb's Law
Static Fields 2023 (6 years)
1. Find the electric field around a finite, uniformly charged, straight rod, at a point a distance $s$ straight out from the midpoint, starting from Coulomb's Law.
2. Find the electric field around an infinite, uniformly charged, straight rod, starting from the result for a finite rod.

assignment Homework

##### Visualization of Wave Functions on a Ring
Central Forces 2023 (3 years) Using either this Geogebra applet or this Mathematica notebook, explore the wave functions on a ring. (Note: The Geogebra applet may be a little easier to use and understand and is accessible if you don't have access to Mathematica, but it is more limited in the wave functions that you can represent. Also, the animation is pretty jumpy in some browsers, especially Firefox. Imagine that the motion is smooth.)
1. Look at graphs of the following states \begin{align} \Phi_1(\phi)&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\left|{2}\right\rangle +\left|{-2}\right\rangle )\\ \Phi_2(\phi)&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\left|{2}\right\rangle -\left|{-2}\right\rangle )\\ \Phi_3(\phi)&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\left|{2}\right\rangle +i\left|{-2}\right\rangle ) \end{align} Write a short description of how these states differ from each other.
2. Find a state for which the probability density does not depend on time. Write the state in both ket and wave function notation. These are called stationary states. Generalize your result to give a characterization of the set of all possible states that are stationary states.
3. Find a state that is right-moving. Write the state in both ket and wave function notation. Generalize your result to give a characterization of the set of all possible states that are right-moving.
4. Find a state that is a standing wave. Write the state in both ket and wave function notation. Generalize your result to give a characterization of the set of all possible states that are standing waves.

group Small Group Activity

10 min.

##### Survivor Outer Space: A kinesthetic approach to (re)viewing center-of-mass
Central Forces 2023 (3 years) A group of students, tethered together, are floating freely in outer space. Their task is to devise a method to reach a food cache some distance from their group.

assignment Homework

##### The Gradient for a Point Charge

Static Fields 2023 (6 years)

The electrostatic potential due to a point charge at the origin is given by: $$V=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{q}{r}$$

1. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in rectangular coordinates.
2. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in spherical coordinates.
3. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in cylindrical coordinates.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Outer Product of a Vector on Itself
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years)

Completeness Relations

Students compute the outer product of a vector on itself to product a projection operator. Students discover that projection operators are idempotent (square to themselves) and that a complete set of outer products of an orthonormal basis is the identity (a completeness relation).

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Vector Surface and Volume Elements
Static Fields 2023 (4 years)

Integration Sequence

Students use known algebraic expressions for vector line elements $d\vec{r}$ to determine all simple vector area $d\vec{A}$ and volume elements $d\tau$ in cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

This activity is identical to Scalar Surface and Volume Elements except uses a vector approach to find directed surface and volume elements.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Wavefunctions on a Quantum Ring
Central Forces 2023 (2 years)

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Vector Differential--Curvilinear
Vector Calculus II 23 (9 years)

Integration Sequence

In this small group activity, students are given a picture as a guide. They then write down an algebraic expression for the vector differential in different coordinate systems (cartesian, cylindrical, spherical).

Use Vector Differential--Rectangular as an introduction. This activity can be done simultaneously with Pineapples and Pumpkins where students or the instructor cut volume elements out of pineapples and/or pumpkins to show the geometry.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Energy and Angular Momentum for a Quantum Particle on a Ring

Quantum Ring Sequence

Students calculate probabilities for a particle on a ring using three different notations: Dirac bra-ket, matrix, and wave function. After calculating the angular momentum and energy measurement probabilities, students compare their calculation methods for notation.

group Small Group Activity

120 min.

##### Box Sliding Down Frictionless Wedge
Theoretical Mechanics (4 years)

Students solve for the equations of motion of a box sliding down (frictionlessly) a wedge, which itself slides on a horizontal surface, in order to answer the question "how much time does it take for the box to slide a distance $d$ down the wedge?". This activities highlights finding kinetic energies when the coordinate system is not orthonormal and checking special cases, functional behavior, and dimensions.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Magnetic Vector Potential Due to a Spinning Charged Ring
Static Fields 2023 (6 years)

Power Series Sequence (E&M)

Ring Cycle Sequence

Students work in small groups to use the superposition principle $\vec{A}(\vec{r}) =\frac{\mu_0}{4\pi}\int\frac{\vec{J}(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert}\, d\tau^{\prime}$ to find an integral expression for the magnetic vector potential, $\vec{A}(\vec{r})$, due to a spinning ring of charge.

In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for $\vec{A}(\vec{r})$ either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.

assignment Homework

##### Working with Representations on the Ring
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

The following are 3 different representations for the $\textbf{same}$ state on a quantum ring for $r_0=1$ $$\left|{\Phi_a}\right\rangle = i\sqrt{\frac{ 2}{12}}\left|{3}\right\rangle - \sqrt{\frac{ 1}{12}}\left|{1}\right\rangle +\sqrt{\frac{ 3}{12}}e^{i\frac{\pi}{4}}\left|{0}\right\rangle -i\sqrt{\frac{ 2}{ 12}}\left|{-1}\right\rangle +\sqrt{\frac{ 4}{12}}\left|{-3}\right\rangle$$ $$\left| \Phi_b\right\rangle \doteq \left( \begin{matrix} \vdots \\ i\sqrt{\frac{ 2}{12}}\\ 0 \\ -\sqrt{\frac{ 1}{12}} \\ \sqrt{\frac{ 3}{12}}e^{i\frac{\pi}{4}} \\ -i\sqrt{\frac{ 2}{12}}\\ 0 \\ \sqrt{\frac{4}{12} }\\ \vdots \end{matrix}\right) \begin{matrix} \leftarrow m=0 \end{matrix}$$ $$\Phi_c(\phi) \doteq \sqrt{\frac{1}{24 \pi}} \left( i\sqrt{2}e^{i 3 \phi} -e^{i\phi} +\sqrt{3}e^{i\frac{\pi}{4}} -i \sqrt{2} e^{-i\phi} + \sqrt{4}e^{-i 3 \phi} \right)$$

1. With each representation of the state given above, explicitly calculate the probability that $L_z=-1\hbar$. Then, calculate all other non-zero probabilities for values of $L_z$ with a method/representation of your choice.
2. Explain how you could be sure you calculated all of the non-zero probabilities.
3. If you measured the $z$-component of angular momentum to be $3\hbar$, what would the state of the particle be immediately after the measurement is made?
4. With each representation of the state given above, explicitly calculate the probability that $E=\frac{9}{2}\frac{\hbar^2}{I}$. Then, calculate all other non-zero probabilities for values of $E$ with a method of your choice.
5. If you measured the energy of the state to be $\frac{9}{2}\frac{\hbar^2}{I}$, what would the state of the particle be immediately after the measurement is made?