The internal energy of helium gas at temperature \(T\) is
to a very good approximation given by
\begin{align}
U &= \frac32 Nk_BT
\end{align}

Consider a very irreversible process in which a small bottle of
helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains
vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium
leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth
the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated. What is the
change in temperature when this process is complete? How much of the
helium will remain in the small bottle?

Students work out heat and work for rectangular paths on \(pV\) and \(TS\) plots. This gives with computing heat and work, applying the First Law, and recognizing that internal energy is a state function, which cannot change after a cyclic process.