Activities
Students, pretending they are point charges, move around the room acting out various prompts from the instructor regarding charge densities, including linear \(\lambda\), surface \(\sigma\), and volume \(\rho\) charge densities, both uniform and non-uniform. The instructor demonstrates what it means to measure these quantities. In a remote setting, we have students manipulate 10 coins to model the prompts in this activity and we demonstrate the answers with coins under a doc cam.
Students work in small groups to use the superposition principle \[V(\vec{r}) =\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\int\frac{\rho(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert} \, d\tau^{\prime}\] to find an integral expression for the electrostatic potential, \(V(\vec{r})\), everywhere in space, due to a ring of charge.
In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for \(V(\vec{r})\) either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.
Problem
You have a charge distribution on the \(x\)-axis composed of two point charges: one with charge \(+3q\) located at \(x=-d\) and the other with charge \(-q\) located at \(x=+d\).
- Sketch the charge distribution.
- Write an expression for the volume charge density \(\rho (\vec{r})\) everywhere in space.
In this small group activity, students integrate over non-uniform charge densities in cylindrical and spherical coordinates to calculate total charge.
For each case below, find the total charge.
- (4pts) A positively charged (dielectric) spherical shell of inner radius \(a\) and outer radius \(b\) with a spherically symmetric internal charge density \begin{equation*} \rho(\vec{r})=3\alpha\, e^{(kr)^3} \end{equation*}
- (4pts) A positively charged (dielectric) cylindrical shell of inner radius \(a\) and outer radius \(b\) with a cylindrically symmetric internal charge density \begin{equation*} \rho(\vec{r})=\alpha\, \frac{1}{s}\, e^{ks} \end{equation*}
Consider the electric field \begin{equation} \vec E(r,\theta,\phi) = \begin{cases} 0&\textrm{for } r<a\\ \frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \,\frac{Q}{b^3-a^3}\, \left( r-\frac{a^3}{r^2}\right)\, \hat r & \textrm{for } a<r<b\\ 0 & \textrm{for } r>b \\ \end{cases} \end{equation}
- (4pts) Use step and/or delta functions to write this electric field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
- (4pts) Find a formula for the charge density that creates this electric field.
- (2pts) Interpret your formula for the charge density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the charge is.
Problem
- Charge is distributed throughout the volume of a dielectric cube with charge density \(\rho=\beta z^2\), where \(z\) is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length \(L\). What is the total charge inside the cube? Do this problem in two ways as both a single integral and as a triple integral.
- On a different cube: Charge is distributed on the surface of a cube with charge density \(\sigma=\alpha z\) where \(z\) is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length \(L\). What is the total charge on the cube? Don't forget about the top and bottom of the cube.
Students write python programs to compute the potential due to a square of surface charge, and then to visualize the result. This activity can be used to introduce students to the process of integrating numerically.
Students, pretending they are point charges, move around the room so as to make an imaginary magnetic field meter register a constant magnetic field, introducing the concept of steady current. Students act out linear \(\vec{I}\), surface \(\vec{K}\), and volume \(\vec{J}\) current densities. The instructor demonstrates what it means to measure these quantities by counting how many students pass through a gate.
Students explore what linear transformation matrices do to vectors. The whole class discussion compares & contrasts several different types of transformations (rotation, flip, projections, “scrinch”, scale) and how the properties of the matrices (the determinant, symmetries, which vectors are unchanged) are related to these transformations.
Consider the volume charge density: \begin{equation*} \rho (x,y,z)=c\,\delta (x-3) \end{equation*}
- (2 pts) Describe in words how this charge is distributed in space.
- (2 pts) What are the dimensions of the constant \(c\)?
One way to write volume charge densities without using piecewise functions is to use step \((\Theta)\) or \(\delta\) functions. Consider a spherical shell with charge density \[\rho (\vec{r})=\alpha3e^{(k r)^3} \]
between the inner radius \(a\) and the outer radius \(b\). The charge density is zero everywhere else.
- (2 pts) What are the dimensions of the constants \(\alpha\) and \(k\)?
- (2 pts) By hand, sketch a graph the charge density as a function of \(r\) for \(\alpha > 0\) and \(k>0\) .
- (2 pts) Use step functions to write this charge density as a single function valid everywhere in space.
Students work in small groups to use Coulomb's Law \[\vec{E}(\vec{r}) =\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\int\frac{\rho(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})\left(\vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\right)}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert^3} \, d\tau^{\prime}\] to find an integral expression for the electric field, \(\vec{E}(\vec{r})\), everywhere in space, due to a ring of charge.
In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for \(\vec{E}(\vec{r})\) either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.
Consider a rod of length \(L\) lying on the \(z\)-axis. Find an algebraic expression for the mass density of the rod if the mass density at \(z=0\) is \(\lambda_0\) and at \(z=L\) is \(7\lambda_0\) and you know that the mass density increases
- (2pts) linearly;
- (2pts) like the square of the distance along the rod;
- (2pts) exponentially.
Inhomogeneous, linear ODEs with constant coefficients are among the most straigtforward to solve, although the algebra can get messy. This content should have been covered in your Differential Equations course (MTH 256 or equiv.). If you need a review, please see: The Method for Inhomogeneous Equations or your differential equations text.
For the following inhomogeneous linear equation with constant coefficients, find the general solution for \(y(x)\).
\[y''+2y'-y=\sin{x} +\cos{2x}\]
Consider a white dwarf of mass \(M\) and radius \(R\). The dwarf consists of ionized hydrogen, thus a bunch of free electrons and protons, each of which are fermions. Let the electrons be degenerate but nonrelativistic; the protons are nondegenerate.
Show that the order of magnitude of the gravitational self-energy is \(-\frac{GM^2}{R}\), where \(G\) is the gravitational constant. (If the mass density is constant within the sphere of radius \(R\), the exact potential energy is \(-\frac53\frac{GM^2}{R}\)).
Show that the order of magnitude of the kinetic energy of the electrons in the ground state is \begin{align} \frac{\hbar^2N^{\frac53}}{mR^2} \approx \frac{\hbar^2M^{\frac53}}{mM_H^{\frac53}R^2} \end{align} where \(m\) is the mass of an electron and \(M_H\) is the mas of a proton.
Show that if the gravitational and kinetic energies are of the same order of magnitude (as required by the virial theorem of mechanics), \(M^{\frac13}R \approx 10^{20} \text{g}^{\frac13}\text{cm}\).
If the mass is equal to that of the Sun (\(2\times 10^{33}g\)), what is the density of the white dwarf?
It is believed that pulsars are stars composed of a cold degenerate gas of neutrons (i.e. neutron stars). Show that for a neutron star \(M^{\frac13}R \approx 10^{17}\text{g}^{\frac13}\text{cm}\). What is the value of the radius for a neutron star with a mass equal to that of the Sun? Express the result in \(\text{km}\).
Einstein condensation temperature Starting from the density of free particle orbitals per unit energy range \begin{align} \mathcal{D}(\varepsilon) = \frac{V}{4\pi^2}\left(\frac{2M}{\hbar^2}\right)^{\frac32}\varepsilon^{\frac12} \end{align} show that the lowest temperature at which the total number of atoms in excited states is equal to the total number of atoms is \begin{align} T_E &= \frac1{k_B} \frac{\hbar^2}{2M} \left( \frac{N}{V} \frac{4\pi^2}{\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt{\xi}}{e^\xi-1}d\xi} \right)^{\frac23} T_E &= \end{align} The infinite sum may be numerically evaluated to be 2.612. Note that the number derived by integrating over the density of states, since the density of states includes all the states except the ground state.
Note: This problem is solved in the text itself. I intend to discuss Bose-Einstein condensation in class, but will not derive this result.
Problem
Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the \(z\)-axis: charges \(+Q\) at \(z=\pm D\) and charge \(-2Q\) at \(z=0\).
Find the electrostatic potential at a point \(\vec{r}\) in the \(xy\)-plane at a distance \(s\) from the center of the quadrupole. The formula for the electrostatic potential \(V\) at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a charge \(Q\) at the point \(\vec{r}'\) is given by: \[ V(\vec{r})=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{Q}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}'\vert} \] Electrostatic potentials satisfy the superposition principle.
Assume \(s\gg D\). Find the first two non-zero terms of a power series expansion to the electrostatic potential you found in the first part of this problem.
- A series of charges arranged in this way is called a linear quadrupole. Why?
Homogeneous, linear ODEs with constant coefficients were likely covered in your Differential Equations course (MTH 256 or equiv.). If you need a review, please see:
Constant Coefficients, Homogeneous
or your differential equations text.
Answer the following questions for each differential equation below:
Each equation has different notations so that you can become familiar with some common notations.
- identify the order of the equation,
- find the number of linearly independent solutions,
- find an appropriate set of linearly independent solutions, and
- find the general solution.
- \(\ddot{x}-\dot{x}-6x=0\)
- \(y^{\prime\prime\prime}-3y^{\prime\prime}+3y^{\prime}-y=0\)
- \(\frac{d^2w}{dz^2}-4\frac{dw}{dz}+5w=0\)
Problem
Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the \(z\)-axis: charges \(+Q\) at \(z=\pm D\) and charge \(-2Q\) at \(z=0\).
Find the electrostatic potential at a point \(\vec{r}\) on the \(x\)-axis at a distance \(x\) from the center of the quadrupole.
A series of charges arranged in this way is called a linear quadrupole. Why?
Students are asked to review:in preparation for an in-class quiz.
- Addition of matrices
- Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar
- Matrix multiplication
- Finding the determinant of a matrix
In this small group activity, students calculate a (linear) function to represent the charge density on a one-dimensional rod from a description of the charge density in words.
Inhomogeneous, linear ODEs with constant coefficients are among the most straigtforward to solve, although the algebra can get messy. This content should have been covered in your Differential Equations course (MTH 256 or equiv.). If you need a review, please see: The Method for Inhomogeneous Equations or your differential equations text.
The general solution of the homogeneous differential equation
\[\ddot{x}-\dot{x}-6 x=0\]
is
\[x(t)=A\, e^{3t}+ B\, e^{-2t}\]
where \(A\) and \(B\) are arbitrary constants that would be determined by the initial conditions of the problem.
Find a particular solution of the inhomogeneous differential equation \(\ddot{x}-\dot{x}-6 x=-25\sin(4 t)\).
Find the general solution of \(\ddot{x}-\dot{x}-6 x=-25\sin(4 t)\).
Some terms in your general solution have an undetermined coefficients, while some coefficients are fully determined. Explain what is different about these two cases.
Find a particular solution of \(\ddot{x}-\dot{x}-6 x=12 e^{-3 t}\)
Find the general solution of \(\ddot{x}-\dot{x}-6 x=12 e^{-3 t}-25\sin(4 t)\)
How is this general solution related to the particular solutions you found in the previous parts of this question?
Can you add these particular solutions together with arbitrary coefficients to get a new particular solution?
- Sense-making: Check your answer; Explicitly plug in your final answer in part (e) and check that it satisfies the differential equation.
A pretzel is to be dipped in chocolate. The pretzel is in the shape of a quarter circle, consisting of a straight segment from the origin to the point (2,0), a circular arc from there to (0,2), followed by a straight segment back to the origin; all distances are in centimeters. The (linear) density of chocolate on the pretzel is given by \(\lambda = 3(x^ 2 + y^2 )\) in grams per centimeter. Find the total amount of chocolate on the pretzel.Main ideas
- Calculating (scalar) line integrals.
- Use what you know!
Prerequisites
- Familiarity with \(d\boldsymbol{\vec{r}}\).
- Familiarity with “Use what you know” strategy.
Warmup
It is not necessary to explicitly introduce scalar line integrals, before this lab; figuring out that the (scalar) line element must be \(|d\boldsymbol{\vec{r}}|\) can be made part of the activity (if time permits).
Props
- whiteboards and pens
- “linear” chocolate covered candy (e.g. Pocky)
Wrapup
Emphasize that students must express each integrand in terms of a single variable prior to integration.
Emphasize that each integral must be positive!
Discuss several different ways of doing this problem (see below).
Details
In the Classroom
- Make sure the shape of the pretzel is clear! It might be worth drawing it on the board.
- Some students will work geometrically, determining \(ds\) on each piece by inspection. This is fine, but encourage such students to try using \(d\vec{r}\) afterwards.
- Polar coordinates are natural for all three parts of this problem, not just the circular arc.
- Many students will think that the integral “down” the \(y\)-axis should be negative. They will argue that \(ds=dy\), but the limits are from \(2\) to \(0\). The resolution is that \(ds = |dy\,\boldsymbol{\hat x}|=|dy|=-dy\) when integrating in this direction.
- Unlike work or circulation, the amount of chocolate does not depend on which way one integrates, so there is in fact no need to integrate “down” the \(y\)-axis at all.
- Some students may argue that \(d\boldsymbol{\vec{r}}=\boldsymbol{\hat T}\,ds\Longrightarrow ds=d\boldsymbol{\vec{r}}\cdot\boldsymbol{\hat T}\), and use this to get the signs right. This is fine if it comes up, but the unit tangent vector \(\boldsymbol{\hat T}\) is not a fundamental part of our approach.
- There is of course a symmetry argument which says that the two “legs” along the axes must have the same amount of chocolate --- although some students will put a minus sign into this argument!
Subsidiary ideas
- \(ds=|d\boldsymbol{\vec{r}}|\)
Students consider projectile motion of an object that experiences drag force that in linear with the velocity. Students consider the horizontal motion and the vertical motion separately. Students solve Newton's 2nd law as a differential equation.
In this lecture, the instructor guides a discussion about translating between bra-ket notation and wavefunction notation for quantum systems.
Students compute probabilities and averages given a probability density in one dimension. This activity serves as a soft introduction to the particle in a box, introducing all the concepts that are needed.
Mathematica Activity
30 min.
Students see probability density for eigenstates and linear combinations of eigenstates for a particle on a ring. The three visual representations: standard position vs probability density plot, a ring with colormapping, and cylindrical plot with height and colormapping, are also animated to visualize time-evolution.
The electrostatic potential due to a point charge at the origin is given by: \begin{equation*} V=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{q}{r} \end{equation*}
- (2pts) Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in rectangular coordinates.
- (2pts) Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in spherical coordinates.
- (2pts) Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in cylindrical coordinates.
(8pts) A charged spiral in the \(x,y\)-plane has 6 turns from the origin out to a maximum radius \(R\) , with \(\phi\) increasing proportionally to the distance from the center of the spiral. Charge is distributed on the spiral so that the charge density increases linearly as the radial distance from the center increases. At the center of the spiral the linear charge density is \(0~\frac{\textrm{C}}{\textrm{m}}\). At the end of the spiral, the linear charge density is \(13~\frac{\textrm{C}}{\textrm{m}}\). What is the total charge on the spiral?
Students integrate numerically to find the electric field due to a cone of surface charge, and then visualize the result. This integral can be done in either spherical or cylindrical coordinates, giving students a chance to reason about which coordinate system would be more convenient.
Problem
Consider the fields at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a point charge located at \(\vec{r}'\).
- Write down an expression for the electrostatic potential \(V(\vec{r})\) at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a point charge located at \(\vec{r}'\). (There is nothing to calculate here.)
- Write down an expression for the electric field \(\vec{E}(\vec{r})\) at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a point charge located at \(\vec{r}'\). (There is nothing to calculate here.)
- Working in rectangular coordinates, compute the gradient of \(V\).
- Write several sentences comparing your answers to the last two questions.
Write the equation for the electrostatic potential due to a point charge.
Instructor's Guide
Prerequisite Knowledge
Students will usually have seen the electrostatic potential due to a point charge in their introductory course, but may have trouble recalling it.Whole-Class Conversations
As students try to remember the formula, many will conflate potential, potential energy, force, and electric field. Their answers may have some aspects of each of these. We use this question to get the iconic equation into the students' working memory in preparation for subsequent activities. This question also be used to help student disambiguate these different physical quantities.
Correct answers you're likely to see
\[V=\frac{kq}{r}\]
\[V=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\frac{q}{r}\] You may want to discuss which constants to use in which contexts, e.g. \(k\) is short and easy to write, but may be conflated with other uses of \(k\) in a give problem whereas \(\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\) assumes you are working in a particular system of units.
Incorrect answers you're likely to see
- Two charges instead of one \[\cancel{V=\frac{kq_{1}q_{2}}{r}}\]
- Distance squared in the denominator \[\cancel{V=\frac{kq}{r^2}}\]
- Vector values \[\cancel{V=\frac{kq\, \hat r}{r}}\]
Possible follow-up questions to help with the disambiguation:
- Relationship between potential and potential energy \(U = qV\)
- Which function is the derivative of the other: \(1/r\) or \(1/r^2\)?
- Which physical quantity (potential or electric field, potential energy or force) is the derivative of the other?
- What is the electrostatic potential conceptually?
- Which function falls off faster: \(1/r\) or \(1/r^2\)?
- What are the dimensions of potential? Units?
- Where is the zero of potential?
Wrap-up
- This could be a good time to refer to the (correct) expression for the potential as an iconic equation, which will need to be further interpreted (”unpacked”) in particular physical situations. This is where the course is going next.
- This SWBQ can also serve to help students learn about recall as a cognitive activity. While parts of the equations that students write may be incorrect, many other parts will be correct. Let the way in which you manage the class discussion model for the students how a professional goes about quickly disambiguating several different choices. And TELL the students that this is what you are doing. Deliberately invoke their metacognition.
- Many students may not know that the electrostatic potential that we are talking about in this activity is the same quantity as what a voltmeter reads, in principle, but not in practice. You may need to talk about how a voltmeter actually works, rather than idealizing it. It helps to have a voltmeter with leads as a prop. Students often want to know about the “ground” lead. We often tie a long string to it (to symbolize making a really long wire) and send the TA out of the room with the string, “headed off to infinity” while discussing the importance of setting the zero of potential. The extra minute or two of humerous byplay gives the importance of the zero of potential a chance to sink in.
We use this small whiteboard question as a transition between The Distance Formula (Star Trek) activity, where students are learning about how to describe (algebraically) the geometric distance between two points, and the Electrostatic Potential Due to a Pair of Charges (with Series) activity, where students are using these results and the superposition principle to find the electrostatic potential due to two point charges.
This activity is the initial activity in the sequence Visualizing Scalar Fields addressing the representations of scalar fields in the context of electrostatics.
Students work in small groups to use the superposition principle \[V(\vec{r}) = \frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\sum_i \frac{q_i}{\vert\vec{r}-\vec{r}_i\vert}\] to find the electrostatic potential \(V\) everywhere in space due to a pair of charges (either identical charges or a dipole). Different groups are assigned different arrangements of charges and different regions of space to consider: either on the axis of the charges or in the plane equidistant from the two charges, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Each group is asked to find a power series expansion for the electrostatic potential, valid in their group's assigned region of space. The whole class wrap-up discussion then compares and contrasts the results and discuss the symmetries of the two cases.
Students work in small groups to use the Biot-Savart law \[\vec{B}(\vec{r}) =\frac{\mu_0}{4\pi}\int\frac{\vec{J}(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})\times \left(\vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\right)}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert^3} \, d\tau^{\prime}\] to find an integral expression for the magnetic field, \(\vec{B}(\vec{r})\), due to a spinning ring of charge.
In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for \(\vec{B}(\vec{r})\) either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.
Students observe three different plots of linear combinations of spherical combinations with probability density represented by color on the sphere, distance from the origin (polar plot), and distance from the surface of the sphere.
Students solve numerically for the potential due to a spherical shell of charge. Although this potential is straightforward to compute using Gauss's Law, it serves as a nice example for numerically integrating in spherical coordinates because the correct answer is easy to recognize.
Students are prompted to consider the scalar superposition of the electric potential due to multiple point charges. First a single point charge is discussed, then four positive charges, then an electric quadrupole. Students draw the equipotential curves in the plane of the charges, while also considering the 3D nature of equipotentials.
Students work in small groups to use the superposition principle \[\vec{A}(\vec{r}) =\frac{\mu_0}{4\pi}\int\frac{\vec{J}(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert}\, d\tau^{\prime}\] to find an integral expression for the magnetic vector potential, \(\vec{A}(\vec{r})\), due to a spinning ring of charge.
In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for \(\vec{A}(\vec{r})\) either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.
- Students need to understand that the surface represents the electric potential in the center of a parallel plate capacitor. Try doing the activity Electric Potential of Two Charged Plates before this activity.
- Students should know that
- objects with like charge repel and opposite charge attract,
- object tend to move toward lower energy configurations
- The potential energy of a charged particle is related to its charge: \(U=qV\)
- The force on a charged particle is related to its charge: \(\vec{F}=q\vec{E}\)
Students explore the effects of putting a point charge at various places inside, outside, and on the surface of a cubical Gaussian surface. The Mathematica worksheet or Sage activity shows the electric field due to the charge, then plots the the flux integrand on the top surface of the box, calculates the flux through the top of the box, and the value of the flux through the whole cube.
Students are asked to:
- Test to see if one of the given functions is an eigenfunction of the given operator
- See if they can write the functions that are found not to be eigenfunctions as a linear combination of eigenfunctions.
Kinesthetic
30 min.
Students, working in pairs, represent two component complex vectors with their left arms. Through a short series of instructor led prompts, students move their left arms to show how various linear transformations affect each complex component.
Students calculate the expectation value of energy and angular momentum as a function of time for an initial state for a particle on a ring. This state is a linear combination of energy/angular momentum eigenstates written in bra-ket notation.
Students calculate probabilities for energy, angular momentum, and position as a function of time for an initial state that is a linear combination of energy/angular momentum eigenstates for a particle confined to a ring written in bra-ket notation. This activity helps students build an understanding of when they can expect a quantity to depend on time and to give them more practice moving between representations.
Students use Mathematica to visualize the probability density distribution for the hydrogen atom orbitals with the option to vary the values of \(n\), \(\ell\), and \(m\).
Students find a wavefunction that corresponds to a Gaussian probability density.