assignment Homework

Circle Trig Complex
Complex Numbers Exponential Form Rectangular Form Polar Form Unit Circle Quantum Fundamentals 2022

Find the rectangular coordinates of the point where the angle \(\frac{5\pi}{3}\) meets the unit circle. If this were a point in the complex plane, what would be the rectangular and exponential forms of the complex number? (See figure.)

assignment_ind Small White Board Question

10 min.

Vector Differential--Rectangular
Static Fields 2022 (8 years)

vector differential rectangular coordinates math

Integration Sequence

In this introductory lecture/SWBQ, students are given a picture as a guide. They then write down an algebraic expression for the vector differential in rectangular coordinates for coordinate equals constant paths.

This activity can be done as a mini-lecture/SWBQ as an introduction to Vector Differential--Curvilinear where students find the vector differential in cylindrical and spherical coordinates..

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Scalar Surface and Volume Elements
Static Fields 2022 (7 years)

Integration Sequence

Students use known algebraic expressions for length elements \(d\ell\) to determine all simple scalar area \(dA\) and volume elements \(d\tau\) in cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

This activity is identical to Vector Surface and Volume Elements except uses a scalar approach to find surface, and volume elements.

assignment Homework

Memorize \(d\vec{r}\)
Static Fields 2022 (3 years)

Write \(\vec{dr}\) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates.

  1. Rectangular: \begin{equation} \vec{dr}= \end{equation}
  2. Cylindrical: \begin{equation} \vec{dr}= \end{equation}
  3. Spherical: \begin{equation} \vec{dr}= \end{equation}

accessibility_new Kinesthetic

10 min.

Curvilinear Basis Vectors
Static Fields 2022 (9 years)

symmetry curvilinear coordinate systems basis vectors

Curvilinear Coordinate Sequence

Students use their arms to depict (sequentially) the different cylindrical and spherical basis vectors at the location of their shoulder (seen in relation to a specified origin of coordinates: either a set of axes hung from the ceiling of the room or perhaps a piece of furniture or a particular corner of the room).

assignment Homework

Find Area/Volume from \(d\vec{r}\)
Static Fields 2022 (5 years)

Start with \(d\vec{r}\) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Use these expressions to write the scalar area elements \(dA\) (for different coordinate equals constant surfaces) and the volume element \(d\tau\). It might help you to think of the following surfaces: The various sides of a rectangular box, a finite cylinder with a top and a bottom, a half cylinder, and a hemisphere with both a curved and a flat side, and a cone.

  1. Rectangular: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
  2. Cylindrical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
  3. Spherical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Vector Surface and Volume Elements
Static Fields 2022 (4 years)

Integration Sequence

Students use known algebraic expressions for vector line elements \(d\vec{r}\) to determine all simple vector area \(d\vec{A}\) and volume elements \(d\tau\) in cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

This activity is identical to Scalar Surface and Volume Elements except uses a vector approach to find directed surface and volume elements.

keyboard Computational Activity

120 min.

Electrostatic potential of spherical shell
Computational Physics Lab II 2022

electrostatic potential spherical coordinates

Students solve numerically for the potential due to a spherical shell of charge. Although this potential is straightforward to compute using Gauss's Law, it serves as a nice example for numerically integrating in spherical coordinates because the correct answer is easy to recognize.

assignment Homework

Gradient Point Charge

Gradient Sequence

Consider the fields at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a point charge located at \(\vec{r}'\).

  1. Write down an expression for the electrostatic potential \(V(\vec{r})\) at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a point charge located at \(\vec{r}'\). (There is nothing to calculate here.)
  2. Write down an expression for the electric field \(\vec{E}(\vec{r})\) at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a point charge located at \(\vec{r}'\). (There is nothing to calculate here.)
  3. Working in rectangular coordinates, compute the gradient of \(V\).
  4. Write several sentences comparing your answers to the last two questions.

assignment Homework

The Gradient for a Point Charge

Gradient Sequence

Static Fields 2022 (6 years)

The electrostatic potential due to a point charge at the origin is given by: \begin{equation} V=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{q}{r} \end{equation}

  1. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in rectangular coordinates.
  2. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in spherical coordinates.
  3. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in cylindrical coordinates.

assignment Homework

Volume Charge Density, Version 2
charge density delta function Static Fields 2022 (6 years)

You have a charge distribution on the \(x\)-axis composed of two point charges: one with charge \(+3q\) located at \(x=-d\) and the other with charge \(-q\) located at \(x=+d\).

  1. Sketch the charge distribution.
  2. Write an expression for the volume charge density \(\rho (\vec{r})\) everywhere in space.

assignment Homework

Undo Formulas for Reduced Mass (Algebra)
Central Forces 2023 (2 years) For systems of particles, we used the formulas \begin{align} \vec{R}_{cm}&=\frac{1}{M}\left(m_1\vec{r}_1+m_2\vec{r}_2\right) \nonumber\\ \vec{r}&=\vec{r}_2-\vec{r}_1 \label{cm} \end{align} to switch from a rectangular coordinate system that is unrelated to the system to coordinates adapted to the center-of-mass. After you have solved the equations of motion in the center-of-mass coordinates, you may want to transform back to the original coordinate system. Find the inverse transformation, i.e. solve for: \begin{align} \vec{r}_1&=\\ \vec{r}_2&= \end{align} Hint: The system of equations (\ref{cm}) is linear, i.e. each variable is to the first power, even though the variables are vectors. In this case, you can use all of the methods you learned for solving systems of equations while keeping the variables vector valued, i.e. you can safely ignore the fact that the \(\vec{r}\)s are vectors while you are doing the algebra.

assignment Homework

Vector Sketch (Rectangular Coordinates)
vector fields Static Fields 2022 (4 years) Sketch each of the vector fields below.
  1. \(\boldsymbol{\vec F} =-y\,\boldsymbol{\hat x} + x\,\boldsymbol{\hat y}\)
  2. \(\boldsymbol{\vec G} = x\,\boldsymbol{\hat x} + y\,\boldsymbol{\hat y}\)
  3. \(\boldsymbol{\vec H} = y\,\boldsymbol{\hat x} + x\,\boldsymbol{\hat y}\)

assignment Homework

Distance Formula in Curvilinear Coordinates

Ring Cycle Sequence

Static Fields 2022 (6 years)

The distance \(\left\vert\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right\vert\) between the point \(\vec r\) and the point \(\vec r'\) is a coordinate-independent, physical and geometric quantity. But, in practice, you will need to know how to express this quantity in different coordinate systems.

  1. Find the distance \(\left\vert\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right\vert\) between the point \(\vec r\) and the point \(\vec r'\) in rectangular coordinates.
  2. Show that this same distance written in cylindrical coordinates is: \begin{equation} \left|\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right| =\sqrt{s^2+s\,{}'^2-2ss\,{}'\cos(\phi-\phi\,{}') +(z-z\,{}')^2} \end{equation}
  3. Show that this same distance written in spherical coordinates is: \begin{equation} \left\vert\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right\vert =\sqrt{r'^2+r\,{}^2-2rr\,{}' \left[\sin\theta\sin\theta\,{}'\cos(\phi-\phi\,{}') +\cos\theta\cos\theta\,{}'\right]} \end{equation}
  4. Now assume that \(\vec r\,{}'\) and \(\vec r\) are in the \(x\)-\(y\) plane. Simplify the previous two formulas.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Electric Field Due to a Ring of Charge
Static Fields 2022 (8 years)

coulomb's law electric field charge ring symmetry integral power series superposition

Power Series Sequence (E&M)

Ring Cycle Sequence

Students work in groups of three to use Coulomb's Law \[\vec{E}(\vec{r}) =\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\int\frac{\rho(\vec{r}^{\,\prime})\left(\vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\right)}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}^{\,\prime}\vert^3} \, d\tau^{\prime}\] to find an integral expression for the electric field, \(\vec{E}(\vec{r})\), everywhere in space, due to a ring of charge.

In an optional extension, students find a series expansion for \(\vec{E}(\vec{r})\) either on the axis or in the plane of the ring, for either small or large values of the relevant geometric variable. Add an extra half hour or more to the time estimate for the optional extension.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Directional Derivatives
Vector Calculus I 2022

Directional derivatives

Gradient Sequence

This small group activity using surfaces relates the geometric definition of directional derivatives to the components of the gradient vector. Students work in small groups to measure a directional derivative directly, then compare its components with measured partial derivatives in rectangular coordinates. The whole class wrap-up discussion emphasizes the relationship between the geometric gradient vector and directional derivatives.

assignment Homework

Circle Vector, Version 2
Static Fields 2022 (6 years)

Learn more about the geometry of \(\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r'}\vert\) in two dimensions.

  1. Make sketches of the following functions, by hand, on the same axes: \begin{align} y &= \sin x\\ y &= \sin(2+x) \end{align} Briefly describe the role that the number 2 plays in the shape of the second graph
  2. Make a sketch of the graph \begin{equation} \vert \vec{r} - \vec{a} \vert = 2 \end{equation}

    for each of the following values of \(\vec a\): \begin{align} \vec a &= \vec 0\\ \vec a &= 2 \hat x- 3 \hat y\\ \vec a &= \text{points due east and is 2 units long} \end{align}

  3. Derive a more familiar equation equivalent to \begin{equation} \vert \vec r - \vec a \vert = 2 \end{equation} for arbitrary \(\vec a\), by expanding \(\vec r\) and \(\vec a\) in rectangular coordinates. Simplify as much as possible. (Ok, ok, I know this is a terribly worded question. What do I mean by “more familiar"? What do I mean by “simplify as much as possible"? Why am I making you read my mind? Try it anyway. Real life is not full of carefully worded problems. Bonus points to anyone who can figure out a better way of wording the question that doesn't give the point away.)
  4. Write a brief description of the geometric meaning of the equation \begin{equation} \vert \vec r - \vec a \vert = 2 \end{equation}

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Electrostatic Potential Due to a Pair of Charges (without Series)
Static Fields 2022 (4 years) Students work in small groups to use the superposition principle \[V(\vec{r}) = \frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\sum_i \frac{q_i}{\vert\vec{r}-\vec{r}_i\vert}\] to find the electrostatic potential \(V\) everywhere in space due to a pair of charges (either identical charges or a dipole). This activity can be paired with activity 29 to find the limiting cases of the potential on the axes of symmetry.

accessibility_new Kinesthetic

30 min.

The Distance Formula (Star Trek)
Static Fields 2022 (6 years)

distance formula coordinate systems dot product vector addition

Ring Cycle Sequence

A short improvisational role-playing skit based on the Star Trek series in which students explore the definition and notation for position vectors, the importance of choosing an origin, and the geometric nature of the distance formula. \[\vert\vec{r}-\vec{r}^\prime\vert=\sqrt{(x-x^\prime)^2+(y-y^\prime)^2-(z-z^\prime)^2}\]

group Small Group Activity

5 min.

Static Fields Equation Sheet
Static Fields 2022 (4 years)