Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020
Find the equilibrium value at temperature \(T\)
of the fractional magnetization \begin{equation}
\frac{\mu_{tot}}{Nm} \equiv \frac{2\langle s\rangle}{N}
\end{equation} of a system of \(N\) spins each of magnetic moment
\(m\) in a magnetic field \(B\). The spin excess is \(2s\). The energy
of this system is given by \begin{align}
U &= -\mu_{tot}B
\end{align} where \(\mu_{tot}\) is the total magnetization. Take the
entropy as the logarithm of the multiplicity \(g(N,s)\) as given in
(1.35 in the text): \begin{equation}
S(s) \approx k_B\log g(N,0) - k_B\frac{2s^2}{N}
\end{equation} for \(|s|\ll N\), where \(s\) is the spin excess, which
is related to the magnetization by \(\mu_{tot} = 2sm\). Hint:
Show that in this approximation \begin{equation}
S(U) = S_0 - k_B\frac{U^2}{2m^2B^2N},
\end{equation} with \(S_0=k_B\log g(N,0)\). Further, show that
\(\frac1{kT} = -\frac{U}{m^2B^2N}\), where \(U\) denotes
\(\langle U\rangle\), the thermal average energy.