assignment Homework

ideal gas internal energy engine

A diesel engine requires no spark plug. Rather, the air in the cylinder is compressed so highly that the fuel ignites spontaneously when sprayed into the cylinder.

In this problem, you may treat air as an ideal gas, which satisfies the equation $pV = Nk_BT$. You may also use the property of an ideal gas that the internal energy depends only on the temperature $T$, i.e. the internal energy does not change for an isothermal process. For air at the relevant range of temperatures the heat capacity at fixed volume is given by $C_V=\frac52Nk_B$, which means the internal energy is given by $U=\frac52Nk_BT$.

Note: in this problem you are expected to use only the equations given and fundamental physics laws. Looking up the formula in a textbook is not considered a solution at this level.

1. If the air is initially at room temperature (taken as $20^{o}C$) and is then compressed adiabatically to $\frac1{15}$ of the original volume, what final temperature is attained (before fuel injection)?

2. By what factor does the pressure increase?

assignment Homework

##### Approximating a Delta Function with Isoceles Triangles

Remember that the delta function is defined so that $\delta(x-a)= \begin{cases} 0, &x\ne a\\ \infty, & x=a \end{cases}$

Also: $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \delta(x-a)\, dx =1$.

1. Find a set of functions that approximate the delta function $\delta(x-a)$ with a sequence of isosceles triangles $\delta_{\epsilon}(x-a)$, centered at $a$, that get narrower and taller as the parameter $\epsilon$ approaches zero.
2. Using the test function $f(x)=3x^2$, find the value of $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x)\delta_{\epsilon}(x-a)\, dx$ Then, show that the integral approaches $f(a)$ in the limit that $\epsilon \rightarrow 0$.

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##### Basic Calculus: Practice Exercises
Determine the following derivatives and evaluate the following integrals.
1. $\frac{d}{du}\left(u^2\sin u\right)$
2. $\frac{d}{dz}\left(\ln(z^2+1)\right)$
3. $\displaystyle\int v\cos(v^2)\,dv$
4. $\displaystyle\int v\cos v\,dv$

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##### Boltzmann probabilities
Consider a three-state system with energies $(-\epsilon,0,\epsilon)$.
1. At infinite temperature, what are the probabilities of the three states being occupied? What is the internal energy $U$? What is the entropy $S$?
2. At very low temperature, what are the three probabilities?
3. What are the three probabilities at zero temperature? What is the internal energy $U$? What is the entropy $S$?
4. What happens to the probabilities if you allow the temperature to be negative?

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##### Bottle in a Bottle
irreversible helium internal energy work first law

The internal energy of helium gas at temperature $T$ is to a very good approximation given by \begin{align} U &= \frac32 Nk_BT \end{align}

Consider a very irreversible process in which a small bottle of helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated. What is the change in temperature when this process is complete? How much of the helium will remain in the small bottle?

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##### Bottle in a Bottle 2
heat entropy ideal gas

Consider the bottle in a bottle problem in a previous problem set, summarized here.

A small bottle of helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated.

The volume of the small bottle is 0.001 m23 and the volume of the big bottle is 0.01 m3. The initial state of the gas in the small bottle was $p=106$ Pa and its temperature $T=300$ K. Approximate the helium gas as an ideal gas of equations of state $pV=Nk_BT$ and $U=\frac32 Nk_BT$.

1. How many molecules of gas does the large bottle contain? What is the final temperature of the gas?

2. Compute the integral $\int \frac{{\mathit{\unicode{273}}} Q}{T}$ and the change of entropy $\Delta S$ between the initial state (gas in the small bottle) and the final state (gas leaked in the big bottle).

assignment Homework

##### Building the PDM: Instructions
PDM In your kits for the Portable Partial Derivative Machine should be the following:
• A 1ft by 1ft board with 5 holes and measuring tapes (the measuring tapes will be on the top side)
• 2 S-hooks
• A spring with 3 strings attached
• 2 small cloth bags
• 4 large ball bearings
• 8 small ball bearings
• 2 vertical clamp pulleys
• A ziploc bag containing
• 5 screws
• 5 hex nuts
• 5 washers
• 5 wing nuts
• 2 horizontal pulleys
To assemble the Portable PDM, start by placing the PDM on a table surface with the measuring tapes perpendicular to the table's edge and the board edge with 3 holes closest to you.
1. one screw should be put through each hole so that the threads stick out through the top side of the board. Next use a hex nut to secure each screw in place. It is not critical that they be screwed on any more than you can comfortably manage by hand.
2. After securing all 5 screws in place with a hex nut, put a washer on each screw.
3. Slide a horizontal pulley onto screws 1 and 2 (as labeled above).
4. On all 5 screws, add a wing nut to secure the other pieces. Again, it does not need to be tightened all the way as long as it is secure enough that nothing will fall off.
5. Using the middle wingnut/washer/screw (Screw 4), clamp the shortest of the strings tied to the spring.
6. Loop the remaining 2 looped-ends of string around the horizontal pulleys and along the measuring tape.
7. Using the string as a guide, clamp the vertical pulleys into place on the edge of the board.
8. Through the looped-end of each string, place 1 S-hook.
9. Put the other end of each s-hook through the hole in the small cloth bag.
Here is a poor photo of the final result, which doesn't show the two vertical pulleys. If you would like, you could view a video of the building process.

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##### Center of Mass for Two Uncoupled Particles

Consider two particles of equal mass $m$. The forces on the particles are $\vec F_1=0$ and $\vec F_2=F_0\hat{x}$. If the particles are initially at rest at the origin, find the position, velocity, and acceleration of the center of mass as functions of time. Solve this problem in two ways, with or without theorems about the center of mass motion. Write a short description comparing the two solutions.

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##### Central Force

Which of the following forces can be central forces? which cannot?

1. The force on a test mass $m$ in a gravitational field $\vec{g~}$, i.e. $m\vec g$
2. The force on a test charge $q$ in an electric field $\vec E$, i.e. $q\vec E$
3. The force on a test charge $q$ moving at velocity $\vec{v~}$ in a magnetic field $\vec B$, i.e. $q\vec v \times \vec B$

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##### Circle Vector, Version 2

Learn more about the geometry of $\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r'}\vert$ in two dimensions.

1. Make sketches of the following functions, by hand, on the same axes: \begin{align} y &= \sin x\\ y &= \sin(2+x) \end{align} Briefly describe the role that the number 2 plays in the shape of the second graph
2. Make a sketch of the graph $$\vert \vec{r} - \vec{a} \vert = 2$$

for each of the following values of $\vec a$: \begin{align} \vec a &= \vec 0\\ \vec a &= 2 \hat x- 3 \hat y\\ \vec a &= \text{points due east and is 2 units long} \end{align}

3. Derive a more familiar equation equivalent to $$\vert \vec r - \vec a \vert = 2$$ for arbitrary $\vec a$, by expanding $\vec r$ and $\vec a$ in rectangular coordinates. Simplify as much as possible. (Ok, ok, I know this is a terribly worded question. What do I mean by “more familiar"? What do I mean by “simplify as much as possible"? Why am I making you read my mind? Try it anyway. Real life is not full of carefully worded problems. Bonus points to anyone who can figure out a better way of wording the question that doesn't give the point away.)
4. Write a brief description of the geometric meaning of the equation $$\vert \vec r - \vec a \vert = 2$$

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##### Coffees and Bagels and Net Worth

In economics, the term utility is roughly related to overall happiness. Many things affect your happiness, including the amount of money you have and the amount of coffee you drink. We cannot directly measure your happiness, but we can measure how much money you are willing to give up in order to obtain coffee or bagels. If we assume you choose wisely, we can thus determine that your happiness increases when you decrease your amount of money by that amount in exchange for increasing your coffee consumption. Thus money is a (poor) measure of happiness or utility.

Money is also a nice quantity because it is conserved---just like energy! You may gain or lose money, but you always do so by a transaction. (There are some exceptions to the conservation of money, but they involve either the Fed, counterfeiters, or destruction of cash money, and we will ignore those issues.)

In this problem, we will assume that you have bought all the coffee and bagels you want (and no more), so that your happiness has been maximized. Thus you are in equilibrium with the coffee shop. We will assume further that you remain in equilibrium with the coffee shop at all times, and that you can sell coffee and bagels back to the coffee shop at cost.*

Thus your savings $S$ can be considered to be a function of your bagels $B$ and coffee $C$. In this problem we will also discuss the prices $P_B$ and $P_C$, which you may not assume are independent of $B$ and $C$. It may help to imagine that you could possibly buy out the local supply of coffee, and have to import it at higher costs.

1. The prices of bagels and coffee $P_B$ and $P_C$ have derivative relationships between your savings and the quantity of coffee and bagels that you have. What are the units of these prices? What is the mathematical definition of $P_C$ and $P_B$?

2. Write down the total differential of your savings, in terms of $B$, $C$, $P_B$ and $P_C$.

3. Solve for the total differential of your net worth. Your net worth $W$ is the sum of your total savings plus the value of the coffee and bagels that you own. From the total differential, relate your amount of coffee and bagels to partial derivatives of your net worth.

assignment Homework

##### Cone Surface

Using integration, find the surface area of a cone with height $H$ and radius $R$. Do this problem in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

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##### Contours

Shown below is a contour plot of a scalar field, $\mu(x,y)$. Assume that $x$ and $y$ are measured in meters and that $\mu$ is measured in kilograms. Four points are indicated on the plot.

1. Determine $\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial x}$ and $\frac{\partial\mu}{\partial y}$ at each of the four points.
2. On a printout of the figure, draw a qualitatively accurate vector at each point corresponding to the gradient of $\mu(x,y)$ using your answers to part a above. How did you choose a scale for your vectors? Describe how the direction of the gradient vector is related to the contours on the plot and what property of the contour map is related to the magnitude of the gradient vector.
3. Evaluate the gradient of $h(x,y)=(x+1)^2\left(\frac{x}{2}-\frac{y}{3}\right)^3$ at the point $(x,y)=(3,-2)$.
4. A contour map for a different function is shown above. On a printout of this contour map, sketch a field vector map of the gradient of this function (sketch vectors for at least 10 different points). The direction and magnitude of your vectors should be qualitatively accurate, but do not calculate the gradient for this function.

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##### Cross Triangle

Use the cross product to find the components of the unit vector $\mathbf{\boldsymbol{\hat n}}$ perpendicular to the plane shown in the figure below, i.e.  the plane joining the points $\{(1,0,0),(0,1,0),(0,0,1)\}$.

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##### Cube Charge
1. Charge is distributed throughout the volume of a dielectric cube with charge density $\rho=\beta z^2$, where $z$ is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length $L$. What is the total charge inside the cube? Do this problem in two ways as both a single integral and as a triple integral.
2. In a new physical situation: Charge is distributed on the surface of a cube with charge density $\sigma=\alpha z$ where $z$ is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length $L$. What is the total charge on the cube? Don't forget about the top and bottom of the cube.

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##### Curl Practice including Curvilinear Coordinates

Calculate the curl of each of the following vector fields. You may look up the formulas for curl in curvilinear coordinates.

1. $$\vec{F}=z^2\,\hat{x} + x^2 \,\hat{y} -y^2 \,\hat{z}$$
2. $$\vec{G} = e^{-x} \,\hat{x} + e^{-y} \,\hat{y} +e^{-z} \,\hat{z}$$
3. $$\vec{H} = yz\,\hat{x} + zx\,\hat{y} + xy\,\hat{z}$$
4. $$\vec{I} = x^2\,\hat{x} + z^2\,\hat{y} + y^2\,\hat{z}$$
5. $$\vec{J} = xy\,\hat{x} + xz\,\hat{y} + yz\,\hat{z}$$
6. $$\vec{K} = s^2\,\hat{s}$$
7. $$\vec{L} = r^3\,\hat{\phi}$$

assignment Homework

##### Current from a Spinning Cylinder
A solid cylinder with radius $R$ and height $H$ has its base on the $x,y$-plane and is symmetric around the $z$-axis. There is a fixed volume charge density on the cylinder $\rho=\alpha z$. If the cylinder is spinning with period $T$:
1. Find the volume current density.
2. Find the total current.

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##### Current in a Wire
The current density in a cylindrical wire of radius $R$ is given by $\vec{J}(\vec{r})=\alpha s^3\cos^2\phi\,\hat{z}$. Find the total current in the wire.

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##### Derivatives from Data (NIST)
Use the NIST web site Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems to answer the following questions. This site is an excellent resource for finding experimentally measured properties of fluids.
1. Find the partial derivatives $\left(\frac{\partial {S}}{\partial {T}}\right)_{p}$ $\left(\frac{\partial {S}}{\partial {T}}\right)_{V}$ where $p$ is the pressure, $V$ is the volume, $S$ is the entropy, and $T$ is the temperature. Please find these derivatives for one gram of methanol at one atmosphere of pressure and at room temperature.
2. Why does it take only two variables to define the state?
3. Why are the derivatives above different?
4. What do the words isobaric, isothermal, and isochoric mean?

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##### Diatomic hydrogen
rigid rotor hamiltonian angular momentum ground state hydrogen diatomic probability

At low temperatures, a diatomic molecule can be well described as a rigid rotor. The Hamiltonian of such a system is simply proportional to the square of the angular momentum \begin{align} H &= \frac{1}{2I}L^2 \end{align} and the energy eigenvalues are \begin{align} E_{\ell m} &= \hbar^2 \frac{\ell(\ell+1)}{2I} \end{align}

1. What is the energy of the ground state and the first and second excited states of the $H_2$ molecule? i.e. the lowest three distinct energy eigenvalues.

2. At room temperature, what is the relative probability of finding a hydrogen molecule in the $\ell=0$ state versus finding it in any one of the $\ell=1$ states?
i.e. what is $P_{\ell=0,m=0}/\left(P_{\ell=1,m=-1} + P_{\ell=1,m=0} + P_{\ell=1,m=1}\right)$

3. At what temperature is the value of this ratio 1?

4. At room temperature, what is the probability of finding a hydrogen molecule in any one of the $\ell=2$ states versus that of finding it in the ground state?
i.e. what is $P_{\ell=0,m=0}/\left(P_{\ell=2,m=-2} + P_{\ell=2,m=-1} + \cdots + P_{\ell=2,m=2}\right)$

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##### Differential Form of Gauss's Law

For an infinitesimally thin cylindrical shell of radius $b$ with uniform surface charge density $\sigma$, the electric field is zero for $s<b$ and $\vec{E}= \frac{\sigma b}{\epsilon_0 s}\, \hat s$ for $s > b$. Use the differential form of Gauss' Law to find the charge density everywhere in space.

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##### Differentials of One Variable
Find the total differential of the following functions:
1. $y=3x^2 + 4\cos 2x$
2. $y=3x^2\cos kx$ (where $k$ is a constant)
3. $y=\frac{\cos 7x}{x^2}$
4. $y=\cos(3x^2-2)$

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##### Differentials of Two Variables
Find the total differential of the following functions:
1. $y=3u^2 + 4\cos 3v$
2. $y=3uv$
3. $y=3u^2\cos wv$
4. $y=u\cos(3v^2-2)$

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##### Directional Derivative

Imagine you're standing on a landscape with a local topography described by the function $f(x, y)= k x^{2}y$, where $k=20 \mathrm{\frac{m}{km^3}}$ is a constant, $x$ and $y$ are east and north coordinates, respectively, with units of kilometers. You're standing at the spot $(3~\mathrm{km},2~\mathrm{km})$ and there is a cottage located at $(1~\mathrm{km}, 2~\mathrm{km})$. At the spot you're standing, what is the slope of the ground in the direction of the cottage? Plot the function $f(x, y)$ and also its level curves in your favorite plotting software. Does your result makes sense from the graph?

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##### Distance Formula in Curvilinear Coordinates

The distance $\left\vert\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right\vert$ between the point $\vec r$ and the point $\vec r'$ is a coordinate-independent, physical and geometric quantity. But, in practice, you will need to know how to express this quantity in different coordinate systems.

1. Find the distance $\left\vert\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right\vert$ between the point $\vec r$ and the point $\vec r'$ in rectangular coordinates.
2. Show that this same distance written in cylindrical coordinates is: $$\left|\vec r -\vec r\,{}'\right| =\sqrt{s^2+s\,{}'^2-2ss\,{}'\cos(\phi\,{}'-\phi) +(z\,{}'-z)^2}$$
3. Show that this same distance written in spherical coordinates is: $$\left\vert\vec r\,{}' -\vec r\right\vert =\sqrt{r\,{}'^2+r^2-2rr\,{}' \left[\sin\theta\sin\theta\,{}'\cos(\phi\,{}'-\phi) +\cos\theta\,{}'\cos\theta\right]}$$
4. Now assume that $\vec r\,{}'$ and $\vec r$ are in the $x$-$y$ plane. Simplify the previous two formulas.

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##### Divergence

Shown above is a two-dimensional vector field.

Determine whether the divergence at point A and at point C is positive, negative, or zero.

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##### Divergence Practice including Curvilinear Coordinates

Calculate the divergence of each of the following vector fields. You may look up the formulas for divergence in curvilinear coordinates.

1. $$\hat{F}=z^2\,\hat{x} + x^2 \,\hat{y} -y^2 \,\hat{z}$$
2. $$\hat{G} = e^{-x} \,\hat{x} + e^{-y} \,\hat{y} +e^{-z} \,\hat{z}$$
3. $$\hat{H} = yz\,\hat{x} + zx\,\hat{y} + xy\,\hat{z}$$
4. $$\hat{I} = x^2\,\hat{x} + z^2\,\hat{y} + y^2\,\hat{z}$$
5. $$\hat{J} = xy\,\hat{x} + xz\,\hat{y} + yz\,\hat{z}$$
6. $$\hat{K} = s^2\,\hat{s}$$
7. $$\hat{L} = r^3\,\hat{\phi}$$

assignment Homework

##### Divergence through a Prism

Consider the vector field $\vec F=(x+2)\hat{x} +(z+2)\hat{z}$.

1. Calculate the divergence of $\vec F$.
2. In which direction does the vector field $\vec F$ point on the plane $z=x$? What is the value of $\vec F\cdot \hat n$ on this plane where $\hat n$ is the unit normal to the plane?
3. Verify the divergence theorem for this vector field where the volume involved is drawn below.

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##### Electric Field and Charge
Consider the electric field $$\vec E(r,\theta,\phi) = \begin{cases} 0&\textrm{for } r<a\\ \frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \,\frac{Q}{b^3-a^3}\, \left( r-\frac{a^3}{r^2}\right)\, \hat r & \textrm{for } a<r<b\\ 0 & \textrm{for } r>b \\ \end{cases}$$
1. Use step and/or delta functions to write this electric field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
2. Find a formula for the charge density that creates this electric field.
3. Interpret your formula for the charge density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the charge is.

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##### Electric Field from a Rod
Consider a thin charged rod of length $L$ standing along the $z$-axis with the bottom end on the $xy$-plane. The charge density $\lambda$ is constant. Find the electric field at the point $(0,0,2L)$.

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##### Electric Field of a Finite Line

Consider the finite line with a uniform charge density from class.

1. Write an integral expression for the electric field at any point in space due to the finite line. In addition to your usual physics sense-making, you must include a clearly labeled figure and discuss what happens to the direction of the unit vectors as you integrate.Consider the finite line with a uniform charge density from class.
2. Perform the integral to find the $z$-component of the electric field. In addition to your usual physics sense-making, you must compare your result to the gradient of the electric potential we found in class. (If you want to challenge yourself, do the $s$-component as well!)

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##### Energy, Entropy, and Probabilities

The goal of this problem is to show that once we have maximized the entropy and found the microstate probabilities in terms of a Lagrange multiplier $\beta$, we can prove that $\beta=\frac1{kT}$ based on the statistical definitions of energy and entropy and the thermodynamic definition of temperature embodied in the thermodynamic identity.

The internal energy and entropy are each defined as a weighted average over microstates: \begin{align} U &= \sum_i E_i P_i & S &= -k_B\sum_i P_i \ln P_i \end{align}: We saw in clase that the probability of each microstate can be given in terms of a Lagrange multiplier $\beta$ as \begin{align} P_i &= \frac{e^{-\beta E_i}}{Z} & Z &= \sum_i e^{-\beta E_i} \end{align} Put these probabilities into the above weighted averages in order to relate $U$ and $S$ to $\beta$. Then make use of the thermodynamic identity \begin{align} dU = TdS - pdV \end{align} to show that $\beta = \frac1{kT}$.

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##### Events on Spacetime Diagrams
Special Relativity Spacetime Diagram Simultaneity Colocation
1. Which pairs of events (if any) are simultaneous in the unprimed frame?

2. Which pairs of events (if any) are simultaneous in the primed frame?

3. Which pairs of events (if any) are colocated in the unprimed frame?

4. Which pairs of events (if any) are colocated in the primed frame?

1. For each of the figures, answer the following questions:
1. Which event occurs first in the unprimed frame?

2. Which event occurs first in the primed frame?

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##### Extensive Internal Energy

Consider a system which has an internal energy $U$ defined by: \begin{align} U &= \gamma V^\alpha S^\beta \end{align} where $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ are constants. The internal energy is an extensive quantity. What constraint does this place on the values $\alpha$ and $\beta$ may have?

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##### Find Area/Volume from $d\vec{r}$

Start with $d\vec{r}$ in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Use these expressions to write the scalar area elements $dA$ (for different coordinate equals constant surfaces) and the volume element $d\tau$. It might help you to think of the following surfaces: The various sides of a rectangular box, a finite cylinder with a top and a bottom, a half cylinder, and a hemisphere with both a curved and a flat side, and a cone.

1. Rectangular: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
2. Cylindrical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
3. Spherical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}

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##### Find Force Law

Find the force law for a central-force field that allows a particle to move in a spiral orbit given by $r=k\phi^2$, where $k$ is a constant.

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##### Flux through a Paraboloid

Find the upward pointing flux of the electric field $\vec E =E_0\, z\, \hat z$ through the part of the surface $z=-3 s^2 +12$ (cylindrical coordinates) that sits above the $(x, y)$--plane.

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##### Flux through a Plane
Find the upward pointing flux of the vector field $\boldsymbol{\vec{H}}=2z\,\boldsymbol{\hat{x}} +\frac{1}{x^2+1}\boldsymbol{\hat{y}}+(3+2z)\boldsymbol{\hat{z}}$ through the rectangle $R$ with one edge along the $y$ axis and the other in the $xz$-plane along the line $z=x$, with $0\le y\le2$ and $0\le x\le3$.

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##### Free Expansion

The internal energy is of any ideal gas can be written as \begin{align} U &= U(T,N) \end{align} meaning that the internal energy depends only on the number of particles and the temperature, but not the volume.*

The ideal gas law \begin{align} pV &= Nk_BT \end{align} defines the relationship between $p$, $V$ and $T$. You may take the number of molecules $N$ to be constant. Consider the free adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas to twice its volume. “Free expansion” means that no work is done, but also that the process is also neither quasistatic nor reversible.
1. What is the change in entropy of the gas? How do you know this?

2. What is the change in temperature of the gas?

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##### Gauss's Law for a Rod inside a Cube
Consider a thin charged rod of length $L$ standing along the $z$-axis with the bottom end on the $x,y$-plane. The charge density $\lambda_0$ is constant. Find the total flux of the electric field through a closed cubical surface with sides of length $3L$ centered at the origin.

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##### Gibbs entropy is extensive
Consider two noninteracting systems $A$ and $B$. We can either treat these systems as separate, or as a single combined system $AB$. We can enumerate all states of the combined by enumerating all states of each separate system. The probability of the combined state $(i_A,j_B)$ is given by $P_{ij}^{AB} = P_i^AP_j^B$. In other words, the probabilities combine in the same way as two dice rolls would, or the probabilities of any other uncorrelated events.
1. Show that the entropy of the combined system $S_{AB}$ is the sum of entropies of the two separate systems considered individually, i.e. $S_{AB} = S_A+S_B$. This means that entropy is extensive. Use the Gibbs entropy for this computation. You need make no approximation in solving this problem.
2. Show that if you have $N$ identical non-interacting systems, their total entropy is $NS_1$ where $S_1$ is the entropy of a single system.
##### Note
In real materials, we treat properties as being extensive even when there are interactions in the system. In this case, extensivity is a property of large systems, in which surface effects may be neglected.

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Find the gradient of each of the following functions:

1. $$f(x,y,z)=e^{(x+y)}+x^2 y^3 \ln \frac{x}{z}$$
2. $$\sigma(\theta,\phi)=\cos\theta \sin^2\phi$$
3. $$\rho(s,\phi,z)=(s+3z)^2\cos\phi$$

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##### Gravitational Field and Mass

The gravitational field due to a spherical shell of matter (or equivalently, the electric field due to a spherical shell of charge) is given by: $$\vec g = \begin{cases} 0&\textrm{for } r<a\\ -G \,\frac{M}{b^3-a^3}\, \left( r-\frac{a^3}{r^2}\right)\, \hat r & \textrm{for } a<r<b\\ -G\,\frac{M}{r^2}\, \hat r & \textrm{for } r>b \\ \end{cases}$$

This problem explores the consequences of the divergence theorem for this shell.

1. Using the given value of the gravitational field, find the divergence of the gravitational field everywhere in space. You will need to divide this question up into three parts: $r<a$, $a<r<b$, and $r>b$.
2. Discuss the physical meaning of the divergence in this particular example.
3. For this gravitational field, verify the divergence theorem on a sphere, concentric with the shell, with radius $Q$, where $a<Q<b$. ("Verify" the divergence theorem means calculate the integrals from both sides of the divergence theorem and show that they give the same answer.)
4. Discuss how this example would change if you were discussing the electric field of a uniformly charged spherical shell.

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##### Helix

A helix with 17 turns has height $H$ and radius $R$. Charge is distributed on the helix so that the charge density increases like (i.e. proportional to) the square of the distance up the helix. At the bottom of the helix the linear charge density is $0~\frac{\textrm{C}}{\textrm{m}}$. At the top of the helix, the linear charge density is $13~\frac{\textrm{C}}{\textrm{m}}$. What is the total charge on the helix?

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##### Hockey

Consider the frictionless motion of a hockey puck of mass $m$ on a perfectly circular bowl-shaped ice rink with radius $a$. The central region of the bowl ($r < 0.8a$) is perfectly flat and the sides of the ice bowl smoothly rise to a height $h$ at $r = a$.

1. Draw a sketch of the potential energy for this system. Set the zero of potential energy at the top of the sides of the bowl.
2. Situation 1: the puck is initially moving radially outward from the exact center of the rink. What minimum velocity does the puck need to escape the rink?
3. Situation 2: a stationary puck, at a distance $\frac{a}{2}$ from the center of the rink, is hit in such a way that it's initial velocity $\vec v_0$ is perpendicular to its position vector as measured from the center of the rink. What is the total energy of the puck immediately after it is struck?
4. In situation 2, what is the angular momentum of the puck immediately after it is struck?
5. Draw a sketch of the effective potential for situation 2.
6. In situation 2, for what minimum value of $\vec v_0$ does the puck just escape the rink?

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##### Ice calorimetry lab questions
This question is about the lab we did in class: Ice Calorimetry Lab.
1. Plot your data I Plot the temperature versus total energy added to the system (which you can call $Q$). To do this, you will need to integrate the power. Discuss this curve and any interesting features you notice on it.
2. Plot your data II Plot the heat capacity versus temperature. This will be a bit trickier. You can find the heat capacity from the previous plot by looking at the slope. \begin{align} C_p &= \left(\frac{\partial Q}{\partial T}\right)_p \end{align} This is what is called the heat capacity, which is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature by a given amount. The $p$ subscript means that your measurement was made at constant pressure. This heat capacity is actually the total heat capacity of everything you put in the calorimeter, which includes the resistor and thermometer.
3. Specific heat From your plot of $C_p(T)$, work out the heat capacity per unit mass of water. You may assume the effect of the resistor and thermometer are negligible. How does your answer compare with the prediction of the Dulong-Petit law?
4. Latent heat of fusion What did the temperature do while the ice was melting? How much energy was required to melt the ice in your calorimeter? How much energy was required per unit mass? per molecule?
5. Entropy of fusion The change in entropy is easy to measure for a reversible isothermal process (such as the slow melting of ice), it is just \begin{align} \Delta S &= \frac{Q}{T} \end{align} where $Q$ is the energy thermally added to the system and $T$ is the temperature in Kelvin. What is was change in the entropy of the ice you melted? What was the change in entropy per molecule? What was the change in entropy per molecule divided by Boltzmann's constant?
6. Entropy for a temperature change Choose two temperatures that your water reached (after the ice melted), and find the change in the entropy of your water. This change is given by \begin{align} \Delta S &= \int \frac{{\mathit{\unicode{273}}} Q}{T} \\ &= \int_{t_i}^{t_f} \frac{P(t)}{T(t)}dt \end{align} where $P(t)$ is the heater power as a function of time and $T(t)$ is the temperature, also as a function of time.

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##### Icecream Mass

Use integration to find the total mass of the icecream in a packed cone (both the cone and the hemisphere of icecream on top).

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##### Isolength and Isoforce Stretchability

In class, you measured the isolength stretchability and the isoforce stretchability of your systems in the PDM. We found that for some systems these were very different, while for others they were identical.

Show with algebra (NOT experiment) that the ratio of isolength stretchability to isoforce stretchability is the same for both the left-hand side of the system and the right-hand side of the system. i.e.: \begin{align} \frac{\left(\frac{\partial {x_L}}{\partial {F_L}}\right)_{x_R}}{\left(\frac{\partial {x_L}}{\partial {F_L}}\right)_{F_R}} &= \frac{\left(\frac{\partial {x_R}}{\partial {F_R}}\right)_{x_L}}{\left(\frac{\partial {x_R}}{\partial {F_R}}\right)_{F_L}} \label{eq:ratios} \end{align}

##### Hint
You will need to make use of the cyclic chain rule: \begin{align} \left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{C} = -\left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {C}}\right)_{B}\left(\frac{\partial {C}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{A} \end{align}
##### Hint
You will also need the ordinary chain rule: \begin{align} \left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{D} = \left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {C}}\right)_{D}\left(\frac{\partial {C}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{D} \end{align}

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The isothermal compressibility is defined as $$K_{T}=-\frac{1}{V} \left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial p}\right)_{T}$$ $K_T$ is be found by measuring the fractional change in volume when the the pressure is slightly changed with the temperature held constant. In contrast, the adiabatic compressibility is defined as $$K_{S}=-\frac{1}{V} \left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial p}\right)_{S}$$ and is measured by making a slight change in pressure without allowing for any heat transfer. This is the compressibility, for instance, that would directly affect the speed of sound. Show that $$\frac{K_{T}}{K_{S}} = \frac{C_{p}}{C_{V}}$$ Where the heat capacities at constant pressure and volume are given by \begin{align} C_{p} &= T \left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial T}\right)_{p} \\ C_{V} &= T \left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial T}\right)_{V} \end{align}

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##### Line Sources Using Coulomb's Law
1. Find the electric field around a finite, uniformly charged, straight rod, at a point a distance $s$ straight out from the midpoint, starting from Coulomb's Law.
2. Find the electric field around an infinite, uniformly charged, straight rod, starting from the result for a finite rod.

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##### Line Sources Using the Gradient
1. Find the electric field around an infinite, uniformly charged, straight wire, starting from the following expression for the electrostatic potential: $$V(\vec r)=\frac{2\lambda}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\, \ln\left( \frac{ s_0}{s} \right)$$

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Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the $z$-axis: charges $+Q$ at $z=\pm D$ and charge $-2Q$ at $z=0$.

1. Find the electrostatic potential at a point $P$ in the $xy$-plane at a distance $s$ from the center of the quadrupole.
2. Assume $s\gg D$. Find the first two non-zero terms of a power series expansion to the electrostatic potential you found in the first part of this problem.
3. A series of charges arranged in this way is called a linear quadrupole. Why?

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Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the $z$-axis: charges $+Q$ at $z=\pm D$ and charge $-2Q$ at $z=0$.
1. Find the electrostatic potential at a point $P$ on the $x$-axis at a distance $x$ from the center of the quadrupole.

2. A series of charges arranged in this way is called a linear quadrupole. Why?

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##### Lines in Polar Coordinates

The general equation for a straight line in polar coordinates is given by: $$r(\phi)=\frac{r_0}{\cos(\phi-\delta)}$$ Find the polar equation for the straight lines below. You do NOT need to evaluate any complicated trig or inverse trig functions. You may want to try plotting the general polar equation to figure out the roles of the parameters.

1. $y=3$
2. $x=3$
3. $y=-3x+2$

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##### Magnetic Field and Current
Consider the magnetic field $\vec{B}(s,\phi,z)= \begin{cases} 0&0\le s<a\\ \alpha \frac{1}{s}(s^4-a^4)\, \hat{\phi}&a<s<b\\ 0&s>b \end{cases}$
1. Use step and/or delta functions to write this magnetic field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
2. Find a formula for the current density that creates this magnetic field.
3. Interpret your formula for the current density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the current is.

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##### Mass Density
Consider a rod of length $L$ lying on the $z$-axis. Find an algebraic expression for the mass density of the rod if the mass density at $z=0$ is $\lambda_0$ and at $z=L$ is $7\lambda_0$ and you know that the mass density increases
• linearly;
• like the square of the distance along the rod;
• exponentially.

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##### Mass of a Slab

Determine the total mass of each of the slabs below.

1. A square slab of side length $L$ with thickness $h$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose mass density is given by $$\rho=A\pi\sin(\pi z/h).$$
2. A square slab of side length $L$ with thickness $h$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose mass density is given by $$\rho = 2A \Big( \Theta(z)-\Theta(z-h) \Big)$$
3. An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length $L$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose surface density is given by $\sigma=2Ah$.
4. An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length $L$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose mass density is given by $\rho=2Ah\,\delta(z)$.
5. What are the dimensions of $A$?
6. Write several sentences comparing your answers to the different cases above.

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##### Memorize Power Series

Look up and memorize the power series to fourth order for $e^z$, $\sin z$, $\cos z$, $(1+z)^p$ and $\ln(1+z)$. For what values of $z$ do these series converge?

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##### Nucleus in a Magnetic Field

Nuclei of a particular isotope species contained in a crystal have spin $I=1$, and thus, $m = \{+1,0,-1\}$. The interaction between the nuclear quadrupole moment and the gradient of the crystalline electric field produces a situation where the nucleus has the same energy, $E=\varepsilon$, in the state $m=+1$ and the state $m=-1$, compared with an energy $E=0$ in the state $m=0$, i.e. each nucleus can be in one of 3 states, two of which have energy $E=\varepsilon$ and one has energy $E=0$.

1. Find the Helmholtz free energy $F = U-TS$ for a crystal containing $N$ nuclei which do not interact with each other.

2. Find an expression for the entropy as a function of temperature for this system. (Hint: use results of part a.)

3. Indicate what your results predict for the entropy at the extremes of very high temperature and very low temperature.

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##### Paramagnet (multiple solutions)
We have the following equations of state for the total magnetization $M$, and the entropy $S$ of a paramagnetic system: \begin{align} M&=N\mu\, \frac{e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} - e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}} {e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} + e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}}\\ S&=Nk_B\left\{\ln 2 + \ln \left(e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}+e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}\right) +\frac{\mu B}{k_B T} \frac{e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} - e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}} {e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} + e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}} \right\} \end{align}
1. List variables in their proper positions in the middle columns of the charts below.

2. Solve for the magnetic susceptibility, which is defined as: $\chi_B=\left(\frac{\partial M}{\partial B}\right)_T$

3. Using both the differentials (zapping with d) and chain rule diagram methods, find a chain rule for:

$\left(\frac{\partial M}{\partial B}\right)_S$

4. Evaluate your chain rule. Sense-making: Why does this come out to zero?

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##### Polar vs. Spherical Coordinates

Show that the plane polar coordinates we have chosen are equivalent to spherical coordinates if we make the choices:

1. The direction of $z$ in spherical coordinates is the same as the direction of $\vec L$.
2. The $\theta$ of spherical coordinates is chosen to be $\pi/2$, so that the orbit is in the equatorial plane of spherical coordinates.

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##### Potential vs. Potential Energy

In this course, two of the primary examples we will be using are the potential due to gravity and the potential due to an electric charge. Both of these forces vary like $\frac{1}{r}$, so they will have many, many similarities. Most of the calculations we do for the one case will be true for the other. But there are some extremely important differences:

1. Find the value of the electrostatic potential energy of a system consisting of a hydrogen nucleus and an electron separated by the Bohr radius. Find the value of the gravitational potential energy of the same two particles at the same radius. Use the same system of units in both cases. Compare and the contrast the two answers.
2. Find the value of the electrostatic potential due to the nucleus of a hydrogen atom at the Bohr radius. Find the gravitational potential due to the nucleus at the same radius. Use the same system of units in both cases. Compare and contrast the two answers.
3. Briefly discuss at least one other fundamental difference between electromagnetic and gravitational systems. Hint: Why are we bound to the earth gravitationally, but not electromagnetically?

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##### Power from the Ocean
heat engine efficiency

It has been proposed to use the thermal gradient of the ocean to drive a heat engine. Suppose that at a certain location the water temperature is $22^\circ$C at the ocean surface and $4^{o}$C at the ocean floor.

1. What is the maximum possible efficiency of an engine operating between these two temperatures?

2. If the engine is to produce 1 GW of electrical power, what minimum volume of water must be processed every second? Note that the specific heat capacity of water $c_p = 4.2$ Jg$^{-1}$K$^{-1}$ and the density of water is 1 g cm$^{-3}$, and both are roughly constant over this temperature range.

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##### Power Plant on a River
efficiency heat engine carnot

At a power plant that produces 1 GW ($10^{9} \text{watts}$) of electricity, the steam turbines take in steam at a temperature of $500^{o}C$, and the waste energy is expelled into the environment at $20^{o}C$.

1. What is the maximum possible efficiency of this plant?

2. Suppose you arrange the power plant to expel its waste energy into a chilly mountain river at $15^oC$. Roughly how much money can you make in a year by installing your improved hardware, if you sell the additional electricity for 10 cents per kilowatt-hour?

3. At what rate will the plant expel waste energy into this river?

4. Assume the river's flow rate is 100 m$^{3}/$s. By how much will the temperature of the river increase?

5. To avoid this “thermal pollution” of the river the plant could instead be cooled by evaporation of river water. This is more expensive, but it is environmentally preferable. At what rate must the water evaporate? What fraction of the river must be evaporated?

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##### Power Series Coefficients 2
Use the formula for a Taylor series: $f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} \frac{d^n f(a)}{dz^n} (z-a)^n$ to find the first three non-zero terms of a series expansion for $f(z)=e^{-kz}$ around $z=3$.

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##### Power Series Coefficients 3
Use the formula for a Taylor series: $f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} \frac{d^n f(a)}{dz^n} (z-a)^n$ to find the first three non-zero terms of a series expansion for $f(z)=\cos(kz)$ around $z=2$.

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##### Quantum Particle in a 2-D Box

(2 points each)

You know that the normalized spatial eigenfunctions for a particle in a 1-D box of length $L$ are $\sqrt{\frac{2}{L}}\sin{\frac{n\pi x}{L}}$. If you want the eigenfunctions for a particle in a 2-D box, then you just multiply together the eigenfunctions for a 1-D box in each direction. (This is what the separation of variables procedure tells you to do.)

1. Find the normalized eigenfunctions for a particle in a 2-D box with sides of length $L_x$ in the $x$-direction and length $L_y$ in the $y$-direction.
2. Find the Hamiltonian for a 2-D box and show that your eigenstates are indeed eigenstates and find a formula for the possible energies
3. Any sufficiently smooth spatial wave function inside a 2-D box can be expanded in a double sum of the product wave functions, i.e. $$\psi(x,y)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\, c_{nm}\; \hbox{eigenfunction}_n(x)\;\hbox{eigenfunction}_m(y)$$ Using your expressions from part (a) above, write out all the terms in this sum out to $n=3$, $m=3$. Arrange the terms, conventionally, in terms of increasing energy.

You may find it easier to work in bra/ket notation: \begin{align*} \left|{\psi}\right\rangle &=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\, c_{nm}\left|{n}\right\rangle \left|{m}\right\rangle \\ &=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\, c_{nm}\left|{nm}\right\rangle \end{align*}

4. Find a formula for the $c_{nm}$s in part (b). Find the formula first in bra ket notation and then rewrite it in wave function notation.

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##### Reduced Mass

Using your favorite graphing package, make a plot of the reduced mass $\mu$ as a function of $m_1$ and $m_2$. What about the shape of this graph tells you something about the physical world that you would like to remember. You should be able to find at least three things.

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##### Ring Function
Consider the normalized wavefunction $\Phi\left(\phi\right)$ for a quantum mechanical particle of mass $\mu$ constrained to move on a circle of radius $r_0$, given by: $$\Phi\left(\phi\right)= \frac{N}{2+\cos(3\phi)}$$ where $N$ is the normalization constant.
1. Find $N$.

2. Plot this wave function.
3. Plot the probability density.
4. Find the probability that if you measured $L_z$ you would get $3\hbar$.
5. What is the expectation value of $L_z$ in this state?

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##### Rubber Sheet

Consider a hanging rectangular rubber sheet. We will consider there to be two ways to get energy into or out of this sheet: you can either stretch it vertically or horizontally. The distance of vertical stretch we will call $y$, and the distance of horizontal stretch we will call $x$.

If I pull the bottom down by a small distance $\Delta y$, with no horizontal force, what is the resulting change in width $\Delta x$? Express your answer in terms of partial derivatives of the potential energy $U(x,y)$.

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##### Series Convergence

Recall that, if you take an infinite number of terms, the series for $\sin z$ and the function itself $f(z)=\sin z$ are equivalent representations of the same thing for all real numbers $z$, (in fact, for all complex numbers $z$). This is not always true. More commonly, a series is only a valid, equivalent representation of a function for some more restricted values of $z$. The technical name for this idea is convergence--the series only "converges" to the value of the function on some restricted domain.

Find the power series for the function $f(z)=\frac{1}{1+z^2}$. Then, using the Mathematica worksheet from class (vfpowerapprox.nb) as a model, or some other computer algebra system like Sage or Maple, explore the convergence of this series. Where does your series for this new function converge? Can you tell anything about the region of convergence from the graphs of the various approximations? Print out a plot and write a brief description (a sentence or two) of the region of convergence.

Note: As a matter of professional ettiquette (or in some cases, as a legal copyright requirement), if you use or modify a computer program written by someone else, you should always acknowledge that fact briefly in whatever you write up. Say something like: “This calculation was based on a (name of software package) program titled (title) originally written by (author) copyright (copyright date).

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##### Series Notation 1

Write out the first four nonzero terms in the series:

1. $\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{n!}$

2. $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{n!}$
3. $$\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty {(-2)^{n}\,\theta^{2n}}$$

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##### Series Notation 2

Write (a good guess for) the following series using sigma $\left(\sum\right)$ notation. (If you only know a few terms of a series, you don't know for sure how the series continues.)

1. $1 - 2\,\theta^2 + 4\,\theta^4 - 8\,\theta^6 +\,\dots$

2. $\frac14 - \frac19 + \frac{1}{16} - \frac{1}{25}+\,\dots$

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##### Sphere in Cylindrical Coordinates
Find the surface area of a sphere using cylindrical coordinates.

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##### Spherical Shell Step Functions
Step Function

One way to write volume charge densities without using piecewise functions is to use step $(\Theta)$ or $\delta$ functions. If you need to review this, see the following link in the math-physics book: https://books.physics.oregonstate.edu/GMM/step.html

Consider a spherical shell with charge density $\rho (\vec{r})=\alpha3e^{(k r)^3}$ between the inner radius $a$ and the outer radius $b$. The charge density is zero everywhere else. Use step functions to write this charge density as a single function valid everywhere in space.

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##### Spiral Orbit
A mass $\mu$, under the influence of a central-force field, moves in a logarithmic spiral orbit given by $r = ke^{\alpha \phi}$, where $k$ and $\alpha$ are constants. Determine the force law of this central-force field.

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##### Spring Force Constant
The spring constant $k$ for a one-dimensional spring is defined by: $F=k(x-x_0).$ Discuss briefly whether each of the variables in this equation is extensive or intensive.

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##### Tetrahedron

Using a dot product, find the angle between any two line segments that join the center of a regular tetrahedron to its vertices. Hint: Think of the vertices of the tetrahedron as sitting at the vertices of a cube (at coordinates (0,0,0), (1,1,0), (1,0,1) and (0,1,1)---you may need to build a model and play with it to see how this works!)

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##### The Gradient for a Point Charge

The electrostatic potential due to a point charge at the origin is given by: $$V=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{q}{r}$$

1. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in rectangular coordinates.
2. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in spherical coordinates.
3. Find the electric field due to a point charge at the origin as a gradient in cylindrical coordinates.

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##### The puddle
differentials The depth of a puddle in millimeters is given by $h=\frac{1}{10} \bigl(1+\sin(\pi xy)\bigr)$ Your path through the puddle is given by $x=3t \qquad y=4t$ and your current position is $x=3$, $y=4$, with $x$ and $y$ also in millimeters, and $t$ in seconds.
1. At your current position, how fast is the depth of water through which you are walking changing per unit time?
2. At your current position, how fast is the depth of water through which you are walking changing per unit distance?
3. FOOD FOR THOUGHT (optional)
There is a walkway over the puddle at $x=10$. At your current position, how fast is the depth of water through which you are walking changing per unit distance towards the walkway.

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##### Theta Parameters

The function $\theta(x)$ (the Heaviside or unit step function) is a defined as: $$\theta(x) =\begin{cases} 1 & \textrm{for}\; x>0 \\ 0 & \textrm{for}\; x<0 \end{cases}$$ This function is discontinuous at $x=0$ and is generally taken to have a value of $\theta(0)=1/2$.

Make sketches of the following functions, by hand, on axes with the same scale and domain. Briefly describe, using good scientific writing that includes both words and equations, the role that the number two plays in the shape of each graph: \begin{align} y &= \theta (x)\\ y &= 2+\theta (x)\\ y &= \theta(2+x)\\ y &= 2\theta (x)\\ y &= \theta (2x) \end{align}

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##### Total Charge

For each case below, find the total charge.

1. A positively charged (dielectric) spherical shell of inner radius $a$ and outer radius $b$ with a spherically symmetric internal charge density $$\rho(\vec{r})=3\alpha\, e^{(kr)^3}$$
2. A positively charged (dielectric) cylindrical shell of inner radius $a$ and outer radius $b$ with a cylindrically symmetric internal charge density $$\rho(\vec{r})=\alpha\, \frac{1}{s}\, e^{ks}$$

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##### Total Current, Circular Cross Section

A current $I$ flows down a cylindrical wire of radius $R$.

1. If it is uniformly distributed over the surface, give a formula for the surface current density $\vec K$.
2. If it is distributed in such a way that the volume current density, $|\vec J|$, is inversely proportional to the distance from the axis, give a formula for $\vec J$.

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##### Total Current, Square Cross-Section
1. Current $I$ flows down a wire (length $L$) with square cross-section (side $a$). If it is uniformly distributed over the entire area, what is the magnitude of the volume current density $\vec{J}$?
2. If the current is uniformly distributed over the outer surface only, what is the magnitude of the surface current density $\vec{K}$?

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##### Translating Contours

Consider the diagram of $T$ vs $V$ for several different constant values of $p$.

1. Translate this diagram to a $p$ vs $V$ w/ constant $T$ graph, including the point $A$. Complete your graph by hand and make a fairly accurate sketch by printing out the attached grid or in some other way making nice square axes with appropriate tick marks.

2. Are the lines that you drew straight or curved? What feature of the $TV$ graph would have to change to change this result?

3. Sketch the line of constant temperature that passes through the point $A$.

4. What are the values of all the thermodynamic variables associated with the point A?

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##### Vector Sketch I
vector fields Sketch each of the vector fields below.
1. $\boldsymbol{\vec F} = y\,\boldsymbol{\hat x} - x\,\boldsymbol{\hat y}$
2. $\boldsymbol{\vec G} = x\,\boldsymbol{\hat x} + y\,\boldsymbol{\hat y}$
3. $\boldsymbol{\vec H} = y\,\boldsymbol{\hat x} + x\,\boldsymbol{\hat y}$
4. $\boldsymbol{\vec K}=s\,\boldsymbol{\hat s}$
5. $\boldsymbol{\vec L}=\frac1s\boldsymbol{\hat\phi}$
6. $\boldsymbol{\vec M}=\sin\phi\,\boldsymbol{\hat s}$
7. $\boldsymbol{\vec N}=\sin(2\pi s)\,\boldsymbol{\hat\phi}$

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##### Vectors
vector geometry

Let \begin{align} \boldsymbol{\vec a} &= \boldsymbol{\hat x}-3\boldsymbol{\hat y}-\boldsymbol{\hat z}\\ \boldsymbol{\vec b} &= \boldsymbol{\hat x}+\boldsymbol{\hat y}+2\boldsymbol{\hat z}\\ {\boldsymbol{\vec c}} &= -2\boldsymbol{\hat x}-\boldsymbol{\hat y}+\boldsymbol{\hat z}\\ \boldsymbol{\vec d} &= -\boldsymbol{\hat x}-\boldsymbol{\hat y}+\boldsymbol{\hat z} \end{align}

Which pairs (if any) of these vectors

1. Are perpendicular?
2. Are parallel?
3. Have an angle less than $\pi/2$ between them?
4. Have an angle of more than $\pi/2$ between them?

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##### Visualization of Wave Functions on a Ring
Using either this Geogebra applet or this Mathematica notebook, explore the wave functions on a ring. (Note: The Geogebra applet may be a little easier to use and understand and is accessible if you don't have access to Mathematica, but it is more limited in the wave functions that you can represent. Also, the animation is pretty jumpy in some browsers, especially Firefox. Imagine that the motion is smooth.)
1. Look at graphs of the following states \begin{align} \Phi_1(\phi)&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\left|{2}\right\rangle +\left|{-2}\right\rangle )\\ \Phi_2(\phi)&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\left|{2}\right\rangle -\left|{-2}\right\rangle )\\ \Phi_3(\phi)&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\left|{2}\right\rangle +i\left|{-2}\right\rangle ) \end{align} Write a short description of how these states differ from each other.
2. Find a state for which the probability density does not depend on time. Write the state in both ket and wave function notation. These are called stationary states. Generalize your result to give a characterization of the set of all possible states that are stationary states.
3. Find a state that is right-moving. Write the state in both ket and wave function notation. Generalize your result to give a characterization of the set of all possible states that are right-moving.
4. Find a state that is a standing wave. Write the state in both ket and wave function notation. Generalize your result to give a characterization of the set of all possible states that are standing waves.

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##### Volume Charge Density

Sketch the volume charge density: $$\rho (x,y,z)=c\,\delta (x-3)$$

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##### Volume Charge Density Practice

You have a charge distribution composed of two point charges: one with charge $+3q$ located at $x=-d$ and the other with charge $-q$ located at $x=+d$.

1. Sketch the charge distribution.
2. Write an expression for the volume charge density $\rho (\vec{r})$ everywhere in space.

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##### Yukawa

In a solid, a free electron doesn't see” a bare nuclear charge since the nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of other electrons. The nucleus will look like the Coulomb potential close-up, but be screened” from far away. A common model for such problems is described by the Yukawa or screened potential: $$U(r)= -\frac{k}{r} e^{-\frac{r}{\alpha}}$$

1. Graph the potential, with and without the exponential term. Describe how the Yukawa potential approximates the “real” situation. In particular, describe the role of the parameter $\alpha$.
2. Draw the effective potential for the two choices $\alpha=10$ and $\alpha=0.1$ with $k=1$ and $\ell=1$. For which value(s) of $\alpha$ is there the possibility of stable circular orbits?

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##### Zapping With d 1

Find the differential of each of the following expressions; zap each of the following with $d$:

1. $f=3x-5z^2+2xy$

2. $g=\frac{c^{1/2}b}{a^2}$

3. $h=\sin^2(\omega t)$

4. $j=a^x$

5. $k=5 \tan\left(\ln{\left(\frac{V_1}{V_2}\right)}\right)$