- quantum mechanics relative phase overall phase measurement probability
*group*Operators & Functions*group*Small Group Activity30 min.

##### Operators & Functions

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years) Students are asked to:- Test to see if one of the given functions is an eigenfunction of the given operator
- See if they can write the functions that are found not to be eigenfunctions as a linear combination of eigenfunctions.

*group*Time Evolution of a Spin-1/2 System*group*Small Group Activity30 min.

##### Time Evolution of a Spin-1/2 System

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years) In this small group activity, students solve for the time dependence of two quantum spin 1/2 particles under the influence of a Hamiltonian. Students determine, given a Hamiltonian, which states are stationary and under what circumstances measurement probabilities do change with time.*assignment*Unknowns Spin-1/2 Brief*assignment*Homework##### Unknowns Spin-1/2 Brief

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years) With the Spins simulation set for a spin 1/2 system, measure the probabilities of all the possible spin components for each of the unknown initial states \(\left|{\psi_3}\right\rangle \) and \(\left|{\psi_4}\right\rangle \).- Use your measured probabilities to find each of the unknown states as a linear superposition of the \(S_z\)-basis states \(\left|{+}\right\rangle \) and \(\left|{-}\right\rangle \).
*Articulate a Process:*Write a set of general instructions that would allow another student in next year's class to find an unknown state from measured probabilities.*Compare Theory with Experiment:*Design an experiment that will allow you to test whether your prediction for each of the unknown states is correct. Describe your experiment here, clearly but succinctly, as if you were writing it up for a paper. Do the experiment and discuss your results.*Make a Conceptual Connection:*In general, can you determine a quantum state with spin-component probability measurements in only two spin-component-directions? Why or why not?

*accessibility_new*Spin 1/2 with Arms*accessibility_new*Kinesthetic10 min.

##### Spin 1/2 with Arms

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years)Quantum State Vectors Complex Numbers Spin 1/2 Arms Representation

Students, working in pairs, use their left arms to represent each component in a two-state quantum spin 1/2 system. Reinforces the idea that quantum states are complex valued vectors. Students make connections between Dirac, matrix, and Arms representation.*keyboard*Sinusoidal basis set*keyboard*Computational Activity120 min.

##### Sinusoidal basis set

Computational Physics Lab II 2023 (2 years)inner product wave function quantum mechanics particle in a box

Students compute inner products to expand a wave function in a sinusoidal basis set. This activity introduces the inner product for wave functions, and the idea of approximating a wave function using a finite set of basis functions.*accessibility_new*Using Arms to Represent Time Dependence in Spin 1/2 Systems*accessibility_new*Kinesthetic10 min.

##### Using Arms to Represent Time Dependence in Spin 1/2 Systems

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years) Students, working in pairs, use their left arms to demonstrate time evolution in spin 1/2 quantum systems.*keyboard*Mean position*keyboard*Computational Activity120 min.

##### Mean position

Computational Physics Lab II 2023 (2 years)probability density particle in a box wave function quantum mechanics

Students compute probabilities and averages given a probability density in one dimension. This activity serves as a soft introduction to the particle in a box, introducing all the concepts that are needed.*face*Time Evolution Refresher (Mini-Lecture)*face*Lecture30 min.

##### Time Evolution Refresher (Mini-Lecture)

Central Forces 2023 (3 years) The instructor gives a brief lecture about time dependence of energy eigenstates (e.g. McIntyre, 3.1). Notes for the students are attached.*assignment*Frequency*assignment*Homework##### Frequency

Quantum Mechanics Time Evolution Spin Precession Expectation Value Bohr Frequency Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years) Consider a two-state quantum system with a Hamiltonian \begin{equation} \hat{H}\doteq \begin{pmatrix} E_1&0\\ 0&E_2 \end{pmatrix} \end{equation} Another physical observable \(M\) is described by the operator \begin{equation} \hat{M}\doteq \begin{pmatrix} 0&c\\ c&0 \end{pmatrix} \end{equation} where \(c\) is real and positive. Let the initial state of the system be \(\left|{\psi(0)}\right\rangle =\left|{m_1}\right\rangle \), where \(\left|{m_1}\right\rangle \) is the eigenstate corresponding to the larger of the two possible eigenvalues of \(\hat{M}\). What is the frequency of oscillation of the expectation value of \(M\)? This frequency is the Bohr frequency.*group*Representations of the Infinite Square Well*group*Small Group Activity120 min.

##### Representations of the Infinite Square Well

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)-
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)
Consider the three quantum states:
\[\left\vert \psi_1\right\rangle = \frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle\]
\[\left\vert \psi_2\right\rangle = \frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle- i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle\]
\[\left\vert \psi_3\right\rangle = -\frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle\]
- For each of the \(\left|{\psi_i}\right\rangle \) above, calculate the probabilities of spin component measurements along the \(x\), \(y\), and \(z\)-axes.
*Look For a Pattern (and Generalize):*Use your results from \((a)\) to comment on the importance of the overall phase and of the relative phases of the quantum state vector.