Find Force Law: Logarithmic Spiral Orbit

    • assignment Find Force Law: Spiral Orbit

      assignment Homework

      Find Force Law: Spiral Orbit
      Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

      In science fiction movies, characters often talk about a spaceship “spiralling in” right before it hits the planet. But all orbits in a \(1/r^2\) force are conic sections, not spirals. This spiralling in happens because the spaceship hits atmosphere and the drag from the atmosphere changes the shape of the orbit. But, in an alternate universe, we might have other force laws.

      Find the force law for a central-force field that allows a particle to move in a spiral orbit given by \(r=k\phi^2\), where \(k\) is a constant.

    • assignment Yukawa

      assignment Homework

      Yukawa
      Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

      In a solid, a free electron doesn't see” a bare nuclear charge since the nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of other electrons. The nucleus will look like the Coulomb potential close-up, but be screened” from far away. A common model for such problems is described by the Yukawa or screened potential: \begin{equation} U(r)= -\frac{k}{r} e^{-\frac{r}{\alpha}} \end{equation}

      1. Graph the potential, with and without the exponential term. Describe how the Yukawa potential approximates the “real” situation. In particular, describe the role of the parameter \(\alpha\).
      2. Draw the effective potential for the two choices \(\alpha=10\) and \(\alpha=0.1\) with \(k=1\) and \(\ell=1\). For which value(s) of \(\alpha\) is there the possibility of stable circular orbits?

    • assignment Undo Formulas for Reduced Mass (Geometry)

      assignment Homework

      Undo Formulas for Reduced Mass (Geometry)
      Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

      The figure below shows the position vector \(\vec r\) and the orbit of a “fictitious” reduced mass \(\mu\).

      1. Suppose \(m_1=m_2\), Sketch the position vectors and orbits for \(m_1\) and \(m_2\) corresponding to \(\vec{r}\). Describe a common physics example of central force motion for which \(m_1=m_2\).
      2. Repeat, for \(m_2>m_1\).

    • group Box Sliding Down Frictionless Wedge

      group Small Group Activity

      120 min.

      Box Sliding Down Frictionless Wedge
      Theoretical Mechanics (4 years)

      Lagrangian Mechanics Generalized Coordinates Special Cases

      Students solve for the equations of motion of a box sliding down (frictionlessly) a wedge, which itself slides on a horizontal surface, in order to answer the question "how much time does it take for the box to slide a distance \(d\) down the wedge?". This activities highlights finding kinetic energies when the coordinate system is not orthonormal and checking special cases, functional behavior, and dimensions.
    • assignment Extensive Internal Energy

      assignment Homework

      Extensive Internal Energy
      Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

      Consider a system which has an internal energy \(U\) defined by: \begin{align} U &= \gamma V^\alpha S^\beta \end{align} where \(\alpha\), \(\beta\) and \(\gamma\) are constants. The internal energy is an extensive quantity. What constraint does this place on the values \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\) may have?

    • assignment Magnetic Field and Current

      assignment Homework

      Magnetic Field and Current
      Static Fields 2022 (3 years) Consider the magnetic field \[ \vec{B}(s,\phi,z)= \begin{cases} 0&0\le s<a\\ \alpha \frac{1}{s}(s^4-a^4)\, \hat{\phi}&a<s<b\\ 0&s>b \end{cases} \]
      1. Use step and/or delta functions to write this magnetic field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
      2. Find a formula for the current density that creates this magnetic field.
      3. Interpret your formula for the current density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the current is.
    • assignment Total Charge

      assignment Homework

      Total Charge
      charge density curvilinear coordinates

      Integration Sequence

      Static Fields 2022 (5 years)

      For each case below, find the total charge.

      1. A positively charged (dielectric) spherical shell of inner radius \(a\) and outer radius \(b\) with a spherically symmetric internal charge density \begin{equation} \rho(\vec{r})=3\alpha\, e^{(kr)^3} \end{equation}
      2. A positively charged (dielectric) cylindrical shell of inner radius \(a\) and outer radius \(b\) with a cylindrically symmetric internal charge density \begin{equation} \rho(\vec{r})=\alpha\, \frac{1}{s}\, e^{ks} \end{equation}

    • assignment Cube Charge

      assignment Homework

      Cube Charge
      charge density

      Integration Sequence

      Static Fields 2022 (5 years)
      1. Charge is distributed throughout the volume of a dielectric cube with charge density \(\rho=\beta z^2\), where \(z\) is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length \(L\). What is the total charge inside the cube? Do this problem in two ways as both a single integral and as a triple integral.
      2. In a new physical situation: Charge is distributed on the surface of a cube with charge density \(\sigma=\alpha z\) where \(z\) is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length \(L\). What is the total charge on the cube? Don't forget about the top and bottom of the cube.
    • assignment Current from a Spinning Cylinder

      assignment Homework

      Current from a Spinning Cylinder
      A solid cylinder with radius \(R\) and height \(H\) has its base on the \(x,y\)-plane and is symmetric around the \(z\)-axis. There is a fixed volume charge density on the cylinder \(\rho=\alpha z\). If the cylinder is spinning with period \(T\):
      1. Find the volume current density.
      2. Find the total current.
    • assignment Current in a Wire

      assignment Homework

      Current in a Wire
      Static Fields 2022 (3 years) The current density in a cylindrical wire of radius \(R\) is given by \(\vec{J}(\vec{r})=\alpha s^3\cos^2\phi\,\hat{z}\). Find the total current in the wire.
  • Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

    In science fiction movies, characters often talk about a spaceship “spiralling in” right before it hits the planet. But all orbits in a \(1/r^2\) force are conic sections, not spirals. This spiralling in happens because the spaceship hits atmosphere and the drag from the atmosphere changes the shape of the orbit. But, in an alternate universe, we might have other force laws.

    Find the force law for a mass \(\mu\), under the influence of a central-force field, that moves in a logarithmic spiral orbit given by \(r = ke^{\alpha \phi}\), where \(k\) and \(\alpha\) are constants.