Curl

    • assignment Curl Practice including Curvilinear Coordinates

      assignment Homework

      Curl Practice including Curvilinear Coordinates

      Calculate the curl of each of the following vector fields. You may look up the formulas for curl in curvilinear coordinates.

      1. \begin{equation} \vec{F}=z^2\,\hat{x} + x^2 \,\hat{y} -y^2 \,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      2. \begin{equation} \vec{G} = e^{-x} \,\hat{x} + e^{-y} \,\hat{y} +e^{-z} \,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      3. \begin{equation} \vec{H} = yz\,\hat{x} + zx\,\hat{y} + xy\,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      4. \begin{equation} \vec{I} = x^2\,\hat{x} + z^2\,\hat{y} + y^2\,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      5. \begin{equation} \vec{J} = xy\,\hat{x} + xz\,\hat{y} + yz\,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      6. \begin{equation} \vec{K} = s^2\,\hat{s} \end{equation}
      7. \begin{equation} \vec{L} = r^3\,\hat{\phi} \end{equation}

    • group Visualization of Divergence

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Visualization of Divergence
      Vector Calculus II 2022 (8 years) Students predict from graphs of simple 2-d vector fields whether the divergence is positive, negative, or zero in various regions of the domain using the definition of the divergence of a vector field at a point: The divergence of a vector field at a point is flux per unit volume through an infinitesimal box surrounding that point. Optionally, students can use a Mathematica notebook to verify their predictions.
    • assignment Magnetic Field and Current

      assignment Homework

      Magnetic Field and Current
      Static Fields 2022 (3 years) Consider the magnetic field \[ \vec{B}(s,\phi,z)= \begin{cases} 0&0\le s<a\\ \alpha \frac{1}{s}(s^4-a^4)\, \hat{\phi}&a<s<b\\ 0&s>b \end{cases} \]
      1. Use step and/or delta functions to write this magnetic field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
      2. Find a formula for the current density that creates this magnetic field.
      3. Interpret your formula for the current density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the current is.
    • group Number of Paths

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Number of Paths

      E&M Conservative Fields Surfaces

      Student discuss how many paths can be found on a map of the vector fields \(\vec{F}\) for which the integral \(\int \vec{F}\cdot d\vec{r}\) is positive, negative, or zero. \(\vec{F}\) is conservative. They do a similar activity for the vector field \(\vec{G}\) which is not conservative.
    • assignment Divergence

      assignment Homework

      Divergence
      Static Fields 2022 (5 years)

      Shown above is a two-dimensional vector field.

      Determine whether the divergence at point A and at point C is positive, negative, or zero.

    • assignment Divergence through a Prism

      assignment Homework

      Divergence through a Prism
      Static Fields 2022 (5 years)

      Consider the vector field \(\vec F=(x+2)\hat{x} +(z+2)\hat{z}\).

      1. Calculate the divergence of \(\vec F\).
      2. In which direction does the vector field \(\vec F\) point on the plane \(z=x\)? What is the value of \(\vec F\cdot \hat n\) on this plane where \(\hat n\) is the unit normal to the plane?
      3. Verify the divergence theorem for this vector field where the volume involved is drawn below. (“Verify” means calculate both sides of the divergence theorem, separately, for this example and show that they are the same.)

    • assignment Find Area/Volume from $d\vec{r}$

      assignment Homework

      Find Area/Volume from \(d\vec{r}\)
      Static Fields 2022 (4 years)

      Start with \(d\vec{r}\) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Use these expressions to write the scalar area elements \(dA\) (for different coordinate equals constant surfaces) and the volume element \(d\tau\). It might help you to think of the following surfaces: The various sides of a rectangular box, a finite cylinder with a top and a bottom, a half cylinder, and a hemisphere with both a curved and a flat side, and a cone.

      1. Rectangular: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
      2. Cylindrical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
      3. Spherical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}

    • assignment Cube Charge

      assignment Homework

      Cube Charge
      charge density

      Integration Sequence

      Static Fields 2022 (5 years)
      1. Charge is distributed throughout the volume of a dielectric cube with charge density \(\rho=\beta z^2\), where \(z\) is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length \(L\). What is the total charge inside the cube? Do this problem in two ways as both a single integral and as a triple integral.
      2. In a new physical situation: Charge is distributed on the surface of a cube with charge density \(\sigma=\alpha z\) where \(z\) is the height from the bottom of the cube, and where each side of the cube has length \(L\). What is the total charge on the cube? Don't forget about the top and bottom of the cube.
    • assignment Mass of a Slab

      assignment Homework

      Mass of a Slab
      Static Fields 2022 (5 years)

      Determine the total mass of each of the slabs below.

      1. A square slab of side length \(L\) with thickness \(h\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose mass density is given by \begin{equation} \rho=A\pi\sin(\pi z/h). \end{equation}
      2. A square slab of side length \(L\) with thickness \(h\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose mass density is given by \begin{equation} \rho = 2A \Big( \Theta(z)-\Theta(z-h) \Big) \end{equation}
      3. An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length \(L\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose surface density is given by \(\sigma=2Ah\).
      4. An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length \(L\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose mass density is given by \(\rho=2Ah\,\delta(z)\).
      5. What are the dimensions of \(A\)?
      6. Write several sentences comparing your answers to the different cases above.

    • assignment Gravitational Field and Mass

      assignment Homework

      Gravitational Field and Mass
      Static Fields 2022 (4 years)

      The gravitational field due to a spherical shell of matter (or equivalently, the electric field due to a spherical shell of charge) is given by: \begin{equation} \vec g = \begin{cases} 0&\textrm{for } r<a\\ -G \,\frac{M}{b^3-a^3}\, \left( r-\frac{a^3}{r^2}\right)\, \hat r & \textrm{for } a<r<b\\ -G\,\frac{M}{r^2}\, \hat r & \textrm{for } r>b \\ \end{cases} \end{equation}

      This problem explores the consequences of the divergence theorem for this shell.

      1. Using the given description of the gravitational field, find the divergence of the gravitational field everywhere in space. You will need to divide this question up into three parts: \(r<a\), \(a<r<b\), and \(r>b\).
      2. Briefly discuss the physical meaning of the divergence in this particular example.
      3. For this gravitational field, verify the divergence theorem on a sphere, concentric with the shell, with radius \(Q\), where \(a<Q<b\). ("Verify" the divergence theorem means calculate the integrals from both sides of the divergence theorem and show that they give the same answer.)
      4. Briefly discuss how this example would change if you were discussing the electric field of a uniformly charged spherical shell.

  • Static Fields 2022 (5 years)

    Shown above is a two-dimensional cross-section of a vector field. All the parallel cross-sections of this field look exactly the same. Determine the direction of the curl at points A, B, and C.