• assignment Curl Practice including Curvilinear Coordinates

      assignment Homework

      Curl Practice including Curvilinear Coordinates

      Calculate the curl of each of the following vector fields. You may look up the formulas for curl in curvilinear coordinates.

      1. \begin{equation} \vec{F}=z^2\,\hat{x} + x^2 \,\hat{y} -y^2 \,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      2. \begin{equation} \vec{G} = e^{-x} \,\hat{x} + e^{-y} \,\hat{y} +e^{-z} \,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      3. \begin{equation} \vec{H} = yz\,\hat{x} + zx\,\hat{y} + xy\,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      4. \begin{equation} \vec{I} = x^2\,\hat{x} + z^2\,\hat{y} + y^2\,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      5. \begin{equation} \vec{J} = xy\,\hat{x} + xz\,\hat{y} + yz\,\hat{z} \end{equation}
      6. \begin{equation} \vec{K} = s^2\,\hat{s} \end{equation}
      7. \begin{equation} \vec{L} = r^3\,\hat{\phi} \end{equation}

    • group Visualization of Divergence

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Visualization of Divergence
      Vector Calculus II 23 (9 years) Students predict from graphs of simple 2-d vector fields whether the divergence is positive, negative, or zero in various regions of the domain using the definition of the divergence of a vector field at a point: The divergence of a vector field at a point is flux per unit volume through an infinitesimal box surrounding that point. Optionally, students can use a Mathematica notebook to verify their predictions.
    • assignment Lines in Polar Coordinates

      assignment Homework

      Lines in Polar Coordinates
      Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

      The general equation for a straight line in polar coordinates is given by: \begin{equation} r(\phi)=\frac{r_0}{\cos(\phi-\delta)} \end{equation} where \(r_0\) and \(\delta\) are constant parameters. Find the polar equation for the straight lines below. You do NOT need to evaluate any complicated trig or inverse trig functions. You may want to try plotting the general polar equation to figure out the roles of the parameters.

      1. \(y=3\)
      2. \(x=3\)
      3. \(y=-3x+2\)

    • assignment Magnetic Field and Current

      assignment Homework

      Magnetic Field and Current
      Static Fields 2023 (4 years) Consider the magnetic field \[ \vec{B}(s,\phi,z)= \begin{cases} 0&0\le s<a\\ \alpha \frac{1}{s}(s^4-a^4)\, \hat{\phi}&a<s<b\\ 0&s>b \end{cases} \]
      1. Use step and/or delta functions to write this magnetic field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
      2. Find a formula for the current density that creates this magnetic field.
      3. Interpret your formula for the current density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the current is.
    • accessibility_new Using Arms to Represent Overall and Relative Phase in Spin 1/2 Systems

      accessibility_new Kinesthetic

      10 min.

      Using Arms to Represent Overall and Relative Phase in Spin 1/2 Systems
      Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years)

      quantum states complex numbers arms Bloch sphere relative phase overall phase

      Arms Sequence for Complex Numbers and Quantum States

      Students, working in pairs, use the Arms representations to represent states of spin 1/2 system. Through a short series of instructor-led prompts, students explore the difference between overall phase (which does NOT distinguish quantum states) and relative phase (which does distinguish quantum states).
    • assignment Divergence through a Prism

      assignment Homework

      Divergence through a Prism
      Static Fields 2023 (6 years)

      Consider the vector field \(\vec F=(x+2)\hat{x} +(z+2)\hat{z}\).

      1. Calculate the divergence of \(\vec F\).
      2. In which direction does the vector field \(\vec F\) point on the plane \(z=x\)? What is the value of \(\vec F\cdot \hat n\) on this plane where \(\hat n\) is the unit normal to the plane?
      3. Verify the divergence theorem for this vector field where the volume involved is drawn below. (“Verify” means calculate both sides of the divergence theorem, separately, for this example and show that they are the same.)

    • assignment Effective Potentials: Graphical Version

      assignment Homework

      Effective Potentials: Graphical Version
      Central Forces 2023 (2 years)

      Consider a mass \(\mu\) in the potential shown in the graph below. You give the mass a push so that its initial angular momentum is \(\ell\ne 0\) for a given fixed value of \(\ell\).

      1. Give the definition of a central force system and briefly explain why this situation qualifies.
      2. Make a sketch of the graph of the effective potential for this situation.
      3. How should you push the puck to establish a circular orbit? (i.e. Characterize the initial position, direction of push, and strength of the push. You do NOT need to solve any equations.)
      4. BRIEFLY discuss the possible orbit shapes that can arise from this effective potential. Include a discussion of whether the orbits are open or closed, bound or unbound, etc. Make sure that you refer to your sketch of the effective potential in your discussions, mark any points of physical significance on the sketch, and describe the range of parameters relevant to each type of orbit. Include a discussion of the role of the total energy of the orbit.

    • assignment Divergence

      assignment Homework

      Static Fields 2023 (6 years)

      Shown above is a two-dimensional vector field.

      Determine whether the divergence at point A and at point C is positive, negative, or zero.

    • assignment Find Area/Volume from $d\vec{r}$

      assignment Homework

      Find Area/Volume from \(d\vec{r}\)
      Static Fields 2023 (5 years)

      Start with \(d\vec{r}\) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Use these expressions to write the scalar area elements \(dA\) (for different coordinate equals constant surfaces) and the volume element \(d\tau\). It might help you to think of the following surfaces: The various sides of a rectangular box, a finite cylinder with a top and a bottom, a half cylinder, and a hemisphere with both a curved and a flat side, and a cone.

      1. Rectangular: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
      2. Cylindrical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}
      3. Spherical: \begin{align} dA&=\\ d\tau&= \end{align}

    • assignment Phase

      assignment Homework

      Complex Numbers Rectangular Form Exponential Form Square of the Norm Overall Phase Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)
      1. For each of the following complex numbers \(z\), find \(z^2\), \(\vert z\vert^2\), and rewrite \(z\) in exponential form, i.e. as a magnitude times a complex exponential phase:
        • \(z_1=i\),

        • \(z_2=2+2i\),
        • \(z_3=3-4i\).
      2. In quantum mechanics, it turns out that the overall phase for a state does not have any physical significance. Therefore, you will need to become quick at rearranging the phase of various states. For each of the vectors listed below, rewrite the vector as an overall complex phase times a new vector whose first component is real and positive. \[\left|D\right\rangle\doteq \begin{pmatrix} 7e^{i\frac{\pi}{6}}\\ 3e^{i\frac{\pi}{2}}\\ -1\\ \end{pmatrix}\\ \left|E\right\rangle\doteq \begin{pmatrix} i\\ 4\\ \end{pmatrix}\\ \left|F\right\rangle\doteq \begin{pmatrix} 2+2i\\ 3-4i\\ \end{pmatrix} \]
  • Static Fields 2023 (6 years)

    Shown above is a two-dimensional cross-section of a vector field. All the parallel cross-sections of this field look exactly the same. Determine the direction of the curl at points A, B, and C.