## One-dimensional gas

• Ideal gas Entropy Tempurature
• assignment Entropy and Temperature

assignment Homework

##### Entropy and Temperature
Energy Temperature Ideal gas Entropy Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

Suppose $g(U) = CU^{3N/2}$, where $C$ is a constant and $N$ is the number of particles.

1. Show that $U=\frac32 N k_BT$.

2. Show that $\left(\frac{\partial^2S}{\partial U^2}\right)_N$ is negative. This form of $g(U)$ actually applies to a monatomic ideal gas.

• assignment Free energy of a harmonic oscillator

assignment Homework

##### Free energy of a harmonic oscillator
Helmholtz free energy harmonic oscillator Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

A one-dimensional harmonic oscillator has an infinite series of equally spaced energy states, with $\varepsilon_n = n\hbar\omega$, where $n$ is an integer $\ge 0$, and $\omega$ is the classical frequency of the oscillator. We have chosen the zero of energy at the state $n=0$ which we can get away with here, but is not actually the zero of energy! To find the true energy we would have to add a $\frac12\hbar\omega$ for each oscillator.

1. Show that for a harmonic oscillator the free energy is $$F = k_BT\log\left(1 - e^{-\frac{\hbar\omega}{k_BT}}\right)$$ Note that at high temperatures such that $k_BT\gg\hbar\omega$ we may expand the argument of the logarithm to obtain $F\approx k_BT\log\left(\frac{\hbar\omega}{kT}\right)$.

2. From the free energy above, show that the entropy is $$\frac{S}{k_B} = \frac{\frac{\hbar\omega}{kT}}{e^{\frac{\hbar\omega}{kT}}-1} - \log\left(1-e^{-\frac{\hbar\omega}{kT}}\right)$$

This entropy is shown in the nearby figure, as well as the heat capacity.

• assignment Quantum harmonic oscillator

assignment Homework

##### Quantum harmonic oscillator
Entropy Quantum harmonic oscillator Frequency Energy Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020
1. Find the entropy of a set of $N$ oscillators of frequency $\omega$ as a function of the total quantum number $n$. Use the multiplicity function: $$g(N,n) = \frac{(N+n-1)!}{n!(N-1)!}$$ and assume that $N\gg 1$. This means you can make the Sitrling approximation that $\log N! \approx N\log N - N$. It also means that $N-1 \approx N$.

2. Let $U$ denote the total energy $n\hbar\omega$ of the oscillators. Express the entropy as $S(U,N)$. Show that the total energy at temperature $T$ is $$U = \frac{N\hbar\omega}{e^{\frac{\hbar\omega}{kT}}-1}$$ This is the Planck result found the hard way. We will get to the easy way soon, and you will never again need to work with a multiplicity function like this.

• assignment Free energy of a two state system

assignment Homework

##### Free energy of a two state system
Helmholtz free energy entropy statistical mechanics Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020
1. Find an expression for the free energy as a function of $T$ of a system with two states, one at energy 0 and one at energy $\varepsilon$.

2. From the free energy, find expressions for the internal energy $U$ and entropy $S$ of the system.

3. Plot the entropy versus $T$. Explain its asymptotic behavior as the temperature becomes high.

4. Plot the $S(T)$ versus $U(T)$. Explain the maximum value of the energy $U$.

• assignment Paramagnetism

assignment Homework

##### Paramagnetism
Energy Temperature Paramagnetism Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 Find the equilibrium value at temperature $T$ of the fractional magnetization $$\frac{\mu_{tot}}{Nm} \equiv \frac{2\langle s\rangle}{N}$$ of a system of $N$ spins each of magnetic moment $m$ in a magnetic field $B$. The spin excess is $2s$. The energy of this system is given by \begin{align} U &= -\mu_{tot}B \end{align} where $\mu_{tot}$ is the total magnetization. Take the entropy as the logarithm of the multiplicity $g(N,s)$ as given in (1.35 in the text): $$S(s) \approx k_B\log g(N,0) - k_B\frac{2s^2}{N}$$ for $|s|\ll N$, where $s$ is the spin excess, which is related to the magnetization by $\mu_{tot} = 2sm$. Hint: Show that in this approximation $$S(U) = S_0 - k_B\frac{U^2}{2m^2B^2N},$$ with $S_0=k_B\log g(N,0)$. Further, show that $\frac1{kT} = -\frac{U}{m^2B^2N}$, where $U$ denotes $\langle U\rangle$, the thermal average energy.
• face Boltzmann probabilities and Helmholtz

face Lecture

120 min.

##### Boltzmann probabilities and Helmholtz
Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

These notes, from the third week of Thermal and Statistical Physics cover the canonical ensemble and Helmholtz free energy. They include a number of small group activities.
• assignment Ideal gas in two dimensions

assignment Homework

##### Ideal gas in two dimensions
Ideal gas Entropy Chemical potential Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020
1. Find the chemical potential of an ideal monatomic gas in two dimensions, with $N$ atoms confined to a square of area $A=L^2$. The spin is zero.

2. Find an expression for the energy $U$ of the gas.

3. Find an expression for the entropy $\sigma$. The temperature is $kT$.

assignment Homework

AIMS Maxwell 2021 (2 years)

Task: Draw a right triangle. Put a circle around the right angle, that is, the angle that is $\frac\pi2$ radians.

• Complete the assignment using your choice of technology. You may write your answers on paper, write them electronically (for instance using xournal), or typeset them (for instance using LaTeX).
• If using software, please export to PDF. If writing by hand, please scan your work using the AIMS scanner if possible. You can also use a scanning app; Gradescope offers advice and suggested apps at this URL. The preferred format is PDF; photos or JPEG scans are less easy to read (and much larger), and should be used only if no alternative is available.)
• Please make sure that your file name includes your own name and the number of the assignment, such as "Tevian2.pdf."

Using Gradescope: We will arrange for you to have a Gradescope account, after which you should receive access instructions directly from them. To submit an assignment:

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• assignment Radiation in an empty box

assignment Homework

##### Radiation in an empty box
Thermal physics Radiation Free energy Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

As discussed in class, we can consider a black body as a large box with a small hole in it. If we treat the large box a metal cube with side length $L$ and metal walls, the frequency of each normal mode will be given by: \begin{align} \omega_{n_xn_yn_z} &= \frac{\pi c}{L}\sqrt{n_x^2 + n_y^2 + n_z^2} \end{align} where each of $n_x$, $n_y$, and $n_z$ will have positive integer values. This simply comes from the fact that a half wavelength must fit in the box. There is an additional quantum number for polarization, which has two possible values, but does not affect the frequency. Note that in this problem I'm using different boundary conditions from what I use in class. It is worth learning to work with either set of quantum numbers. Each normal mode is a harmonic oscillator, with energy eigenstates $E_n = n\hbar\omega$ where we will not include the zero-point energy $\frac12\hbar\omega$, since that energy cannot be extracted from the box. (See the Casimir effect for an example where the zero point energy of photon modes does have an effect.)

Note
This is a slight approximation, as the boundary conditions for light are a bit more complicated. However, for large $n$ values this gives the correct result.

1. Show that the free energy is given by \begin{align} F &= 8\pi \frac{V(kT)^4}{h^3c^3} \int_0^\infty \ln\left(1-e^{-\xi}\right)\xi^2d\xi \\ &= -\frac{8\pi^5}{45} \frac{V(kT)^4}{h^3c^3} \\ &= -\frac{\pi^2}{45} \frac{V(kT)^4}{\hbar^3c^3} \end{align} provided the box is big enough that $\frac{\hbar c}{LkT}\ll 1$. Note that you may end up with a slightly different dimensionless integral that numerically evaluates to the same result, which would be fine. I also do not expect you to solve this definite integral analytically, a numerical confirmation is fine. However, you must manipulate your integral until it is dimensionless and has all the dimensionful quantities removed from it!

2. Show that the entropy of this box full of photons at temperature $T$ is \begin{align} S &= \frac{32\pi^5}{45} k V \left(\frac{kT}{hc}\right)^3 \\ &= \frac{4\pi^2}{45} k V \left(\frac{kT}{\hbar c}\right)^3 \end{align}

3. Show that the internal energy of this box full of photons at temperature $T$ is \begin{align} \frac{U}{V} &= \frac{8\pi^5}{15}\frac{(kT)^4}{h^3c^3} \\ &= \frac{\pi^2}{15}\frac{(kT)^4}{\hbar^3c^3} \end{align}

• face Entropy and Temperature

face Lecture

120 min.

##### Entropy and Temperature
Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

These lecture notes for the second week of Thermal and Statistical Physics involve relating entropy and temperature in the microcanonical ensemble, using a paramagnet as an example. These notes include a few small group activities.
• Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 Consider an ideal gas of $N$ particles, each of mass $M$, confined to a one-dimensional line of length $L$. The particles have spin zero (so you can ignore spin) and do not interact with one another. Find the entropy at temperature $T$. You may assume that the temperature is high enough that $k_B T$ is much greater than the ground state energy of one particle.