*assignment*Differentials of Two Variables*assignment*Homework##### Differentials of Two Variables

Static Fields 2023 (8 years) Find the total differential of the following functions:- \(y=3u^2 + 4\cos 3v\)
- \(y=3uv\)
- \(y=3u^2\cos wv\)
- \(y=u\cos(3v^2-2)\)

*assignment*Pressure of thermal radiation*assignment*Homework##### Pressure of thermal radiation

Thermal radiation Pressure Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020(modified from K&K 4.6) We discussed in class that \begin{align} p &= -\left(\frac{\partial F}{\partial V}\right)_T \end{align} Use this relationship to show that

\begin{align} p &= -\sum_j \langle n_j\rangle\hbar \left(\frac{d\omega_j}{dV}\right), \end{align} where \(\langle n_j\rangle\) is the number of photons in the mode \(j\);

Solve for the relationship between pressure and internal energy.

*assignment*Mass of a Slab*assignment*Homework##### Mass of a Slab

Static Fields 2023 (6 years)Determine the total mass of each of the slabs below.

- A square slab of side length \(L\) with thickness \(h\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose mass density is given by \begin{equation} \rho=A\pi\sin(\pi z/h). \end{equation}
- A square slab of side length \(L\) with thickness \(h\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose mass density is given by \begin{equation} \rho = 2A \Big( \Theta(z)-\Theta(z-h) \Big) \end{equation}
- An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length \(L\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose surface density is given by \(\sigma=2Ah\).
- An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length \(L\), resting on a table top at \(z=0\), whose mass density is given by \(\rho=2Ah\,\delta(z)\).
- What are the dimensions of \(A\)?
- Write several sentences comparing your answers to the different cases above.

*assignment*Coffees and Bagels and Net Worth*assignment*Homework##### Coffees and Bagels and Net Worth

Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)In economics, the term

*utility*is roughly related to overall happiness. Many things affect your happiness, including the amount of money you have and the amount of coffee you drink. We cannot directly measure your happiness, but we*can*measure how much money you are willing to give up in order to obtain coffee or bagels. If we assume you choose wisely, we can thus determine that your happiness increases when you decrease your amount of money by that amount in exchange for increasing your coffee consumption. Thus money is a (poor) measure of happiness or utility.Money is also a nice quantity because it is conserved---just like energy! You may gain or lose money, but you always do so by a transaction. (There are some exceptions to the conservation of money, but they involve either the Fed, counterfeiters, or destruction of cash money, and we will ignore those issues.)

In this problem, we will assume that you have bought all the coffee and bagels you want (and no more), so that your happiness has been maximized. Thus you are in equilibrium with the coffee shop. We will assume further that you remain in equilibrium with the coffee shop at all times, and that you can sell coffee and bagels back to the coffee shop at cost.

^{*}Thus your savings \(S\) can be considered to be a function of your bagels \(B\) and coffee \(C\). In this problem we will also discuss the prices \(P_B\) and \(P_C\), which you may

*not*assume are independent of \(B\) and \(C\). It may help to imagine that you could possibly buy out the local supply of coffee, and have to import it at higher costs.The prices of bagels and coffee \(P_B\) and \(P_C\) have derivative relationships between your savings and the quantity of coffee and bagels that you have. What are the units of these prices? What is the mathematical definition of \(P_C\) and \(P_B\)?

Write down the total differential of your savings, in terms of \(B\), \(C\), \(P_B\) and \(P_C\).

- Solve for the total differential of your net worth. Your net worth \(W\) is the sum of your total savings plus the value of the coffee and bagels that you own. From the total differential, relate your amount of coffee and bagels to partial derivatives of your net worth.

*assignment*Free Expansion*assignment*Homework##### Free Expansion

Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)The internal energy is of any ideal gas can be written as \begin{align} U &= U(T,N) \end{align} meaning that the internal energy depends only on the number of particles and the temperature, but not the volume.

The ideal gas law \begin{align} pV &= Nk_BT \end{align} defines the relationship between \(p\), \(V\) and \(T\). You may take the number of molecules \(N\) to be constant. Consider the free adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas to twice its volume. “Free expansion” means that no work is done, but also that the process is also neither quasistatic nor reversible.^{*}What is the change in entropy of the gas? How do you know this?

- What is the change in temperature of the gas?

*assignment*Bottle in a Bottle 2*assignment*Homework##### Bottle in a Bottle 2

heat entropy ideal gas Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)Consider the bottle in a bottle problem in a previous problem set, summarized here.

A small bottle of helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated.The volume of the small bottle is 0.001 m

^{23}and the volume of the big bottle is 0.01 m^{3}. The initial state of the gas in the small bottle was \(p=106\) Pa and its temperature \(T=300\) K. Approximate the helium gas as an ideal gas of equations of state \(pV=Nk_BT\) and \(U=\frac32 Nk_BT\).How many molecules of gas does the large bottle contain? What is the final temperature of the gas?

Compute the integral \(\int \frac{{\mathit{\unicode{273}}} Q}{T}\) and the change of entropy \(\Delta S\) between the initial state (gas in the small bottle) and the final state (gas leaked in the big bottle).

- Discuss your results.

*assignment*Icecream Mass*assignment*Homework##### Icecream Mass

Static Fields 2023 (6 years)Use integration to find the total mass of the icecream in a packed cone (both the cone and the hemisphere of icecream on top).

*face*Energy and Entropy review*face*Lecture5 min.

##### Energy and Entropy review

Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 (3 years)thermodynamics statistical mechanics

This very quick lecture reviews the content taught in Energy and Entropy, and is the first content in Thermal and Statistical Physics.*assignment*Adiabatic Compression*assignment*Homework##### Adiabatic Compression

ideal gas internal energy engine Energy and Entropy 2020A diesel engine requires no spark plug. Rather, the air in the cylinder is compressed so highly that the fuel ignites spontaneously when sprayed into the cylinder.

In this problem, you may treat air as an ideal gas, which satisfies the equation \(pV = Nk_BT\). You may also use the property of an ideal gas that the internal energy depends only on the temperature \(T\), i.e. the internal energy does not change for an isothermal process. For air at the relevant range of temperatures the heat capacity at fixed volume is given by \(C_V=\frac52Nk_B\), which means the internal energy is given by \(U=\frac52Nk_BT\).

**Note: in this problem you are expected to use only the equations given and fundamental physics laws. Looking up the formula in a textbook is***not*considered a solution at this level.If the air is initially at room temperature (taken as \(20^{o}C\)) and is then compressed adiabatically to \(\frac1{15}\) of the original volume, what final temperature is attained (before fuel injection)?

- By what factor does the pressure increase?

*assignment*Flux through a Plane*assignment*Homework##### Flux through a Plane

Static Fields 2023 (4 years) Find the upward pointing flux of the vector field \(\boldsymbol{\vec{H}}=2z\,\boldsymbol{\hat{x}} +\frac{1}{x^2+1}\boldsymbol{\hat{y}}+(3+2z)\boldsymbol{\hat{z}}\) through the rectangle \(R\) with one edge along the \(y\) axis and the other in the \(xz\)-plane along the line \(z=x\), with \(0\le y\le2\) and \(0\le x\le3\).-
Static Fields 2023 (4 years)
Determine the following derivatives and evaluate the following integrals, all by hand. You should also learn how to check these answers on Wolfram Alpha.
- \(\frac{d}{du}\left(u^2\sin u\right)\)
- \(\frac{d}{dz}\left(\ln(z^2+1)\right)\)
- \(\displaystyle\int v\cos(v^2)\,dv\)
- \(\displaystyle\int v\cos v\,dv\)