- Clausius-Clapeyron
*assignment*Vapor pressure equation*assignment*Homework##### Vapor pressure equation

phase transformation Clausius-Clapeyron Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 Consider a phase transformation between either solid or liquid and gas. Assume that the volume of the gas is*way*bigger than that of the liquid or solid, such that \(\Delta V \approx V_g\). Furthermore, assume that the ideal gas law applies to the gas phase.**Note: this problem is solved in the textbook, in the section on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.**Solve for \(\frac{dp}{dT}\) in terms of the pressure of the vapor and the latent heat \(L\) and the temperature.

Assume further that the latent heat is roughly independent of temperature. Integrate to find the vapor pressure itself as a function of temperature (and of course, the latent heat).

*face*Phase transformations*face*Lecture120 min.

##### Phase transformations

Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020phase transformation Clausius-Clapeyron mean field theory thermodynamics

These lecture notes from the ninth week of Thermal and Statistical Physics cover phase transformations, the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, mean field theory and more. They include a number of small group activities.*assignment*Heat of vaporization of ice*assignment*Homework##### Heat of vaporization of ice

Vaporization Heat Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 The pressure of water vapor over ice is 518 Pa at \(-2^\circ\text{C}\). The vapor pressure of water at its triple point is 611 Pa, at 0.01\(^\circ\text{C}\) (see Estimate in \(\text{J mol}^{-1}\) the heat of vaporization of ice just under freezing. How does this compare with the heat of vaporization of water?*face*Review of Thermal Physics*face*Lecture30 min.

##### Review of Thermal Physics

Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020thermodynamics statistical mechanics

These are notes, essentially the equation sheet, from the final review session for Thermal and Statistical Physics.*group*Heat capacity of N$_2$*group*Small Group Activity30 min.

##### Heat capacity of N

Contemporary Challenges 2022 (4 years) Students sketch the temperature-dependent heat capacity of molecular nitrogen. They apply the equipartition theorem and compute the temperatures at which degrees of freedom “freeze out.”_{2}*assignment*Basic Calculus: Practice Exercises*assignment*Homework##### Basic Calculus: Practice Exercises

Static Fields 2022 (4 years) Determine the following derivatives and evaluate the following integrals.- \(\frac{d}{du}\left(u^2\sin u\right)\)
- \(\frac{d}{dz}\left(\ln(z^2+1)\right)\)
- \(\displaystyle\int v\cos(v^2)\,dv\)
- \(\displaystyle\int v\cos v\,dv\)

*assignment*Adiabatic Compression*assignment*Homework##### Adiabatic Compression

ideal gas internal energy engine Energy and Entropy 2020A diesel engine requires no spark plug. Rather, the air in the cylinder is compressed so highly that the fuel ignites spontaneously when sprayed into the cylinder.

In this problem, you may treat air as an ideal gas, which satisfies the equation \(pV = Nk_BT\). You may also use the property of an ideal gas that the internal energy depends only on the temperature \(T\), i.e. the internal energy does not change for an isothermal process. For air at the relevant range of temperatures the heat capacity at fixed volume is given by \(C_V=\frac52Nk_B\), which means the internal energy is given by \(U=\frac52Nk_BT\).

**Note: in this problem you are expected to use only the equations given and fundamental physics laws. Looking up the formula in a textbook is***not*considered a solution at this level.If the air is initially at room temperature (taken as \(20^{o}C\)) and is then compressed adiabatically to \(\frac1{15}\) of the original volume, what final temperature is attained (before fuel injection)?

- By what factor does the pressure increase?

*biotech*Microwave oven Ice Calorimetry Lab*biotech*Experiment60 min.

##### Microwave oven Ice Calorimetry Lab

Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)heat entropy water ice thermodynamics

In this remote-friendly activity, students use a microwave oven (and optionally a thermometer) to measure the latent heat of melting for water (and optionally the heat capacity). From these they compute changes in entropy. See also Ice Calorimetry Lab.*assignment*Heat capacity of vacuum*assignment*Homework##### Heat capacity of vacuum

Heat capacity entropy Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020- Solve for the heat capacity of a vacuum, given the above, and assuming that photons represent all the energy present in vacuum.
- Compare the heat capacity of vacuum at room temperature with the heat capacity of an equal volume of water.

*assignment*Boltzmann probabilities*assignment*Homework##### Boltzmann probabilities

Energy Entropy Boltzmann probabilities Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 (3 years) Consider a three-state system with energies \((-\epsilon,0,\epsilon)\).- At infinite temperature, what are the probabilities of the three states being occupied? What is the internal energy \(U\)? What is the entropy \(S\)?
- At very low temperature, what are the three probabilities?
- What are the three probabilities at zero temperature? What is the internal energy \(U\)? What is the entropy \(S\)?
- What happens to the probabilities if you allow the temperature to be negative?

- Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 Calculate based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation the value of \(\frac{dT}{dp}\) near \(p=1\text{atm}\) for the liquid-vapor equilibrium of water. The heat of vaporization at \(100^\circ\text{C}\) is \(2260\text{ J g}^{-1}\). Express the result in kelvin/atm.