Heat of vaporization of ice

  • Vaporization Heat
    • assignment Calculation of $\frac{dT}{dp}$ for water

      assignment Homework

      Calculation of \(\frac{dT}{dp}\) for water
      Clausius-Clapeyron Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 Calculate based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation the value of \(\frac{dT}{dp}\) near \(p=1\text{atm}\) for the liquid-vapor equilibrium of water. The heat of vaporization at \(100^\circ\text{C}\) is \(2260\text{ J g}^{-1}\). Express the result in kelvin/atm.
    • assignment Derivatives from Data (NIST)

      assignment Homework

      Derivatives from Data (NIST)
      Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years) Use the NIST web site “Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems” to answer the following questions. This site is an excellent resource for finding experimentally measured properties of fluids.
      1. Find the partial derivatives \[\left(\frac{\partial {S}}{\partial {T}}\right)_{p}\] \[\left(\frac{\partial {S}}{\partial {T}}\right)_{V}\] where \(p\) is the pressure, \(V\) is the volume, \(S\) is the entropy, and \(T\) is the temperature. Please find these derivatives for one gram of methanol at one atmosphere of pressure and at room temperature.
      2. Why does it take only two variables to define the state?
      3. Why are the derivatives above different?
      4. What do the words isobaric, isothermal, and isochoric mean?
    • group Heat and Temperature of Water Vapor

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Heat and Temperature of Water Vapor

      Thermo Heat Capacity Partial Derivatives

      In this introduction to heat capacity, students determine a derivative that indicates how much the internal energy changes as the temperature changes when volume is held constant.
    • group Ideal Gas Model

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Ideal Gas Model

      Ideal Gas surfaces thermo

      Students consider whether the thermo surfaces reflect the properties of an ideal gas.
    • group ``Squishability'' of Water Vapor (Contour Map)

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      “Squishability” of Water Vapor (Contour Map)

      Thermo Partial Derivatives

      Students determine the “squishibility” (an extensive compressibility) by taking \(-\partial V/\partial P\) holding either temperature or entropy fixed.
    • assignment Vapor pressure equation

      assignment Homework

      Vapor pressure equation
      phase transformation Clausius-Clapeyron Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 Consider a phase transformation between either solid or liquid and gas. Assume that the volume of the gas is way bigger than that of the liquid or solid, such that \(\Delta V \approx V_g\). Furthermore, assume that the ideal gas law applies to the gas phase. Note: this problem is solved in the textbook, in the section on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
      1. Solve for \(\frac{dp}{dT}\) in terms of the pressure of the vapor and the latent heat \(L\) and the temperature.

      2. Assume further that the latent heat is roughly independent of temperature. Integrate to find the vapor pressure itself as a function of temperature (and of course, the latent heat).

    • group Changes in Internal Energy (Remote)

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Changes in Internal Energy (Remote)

      Thermo Internal Energy 1st Law of Thermodynamics

      Warm-Up

      Students consider the change in internal energy during three different processes involving a container of water vapor on a stove. Using the 1st Law of Thermodynamics, students reason about how the internal energy would change and then compare this prediction with data from NIST presented as a contour plot.
    • assignment Spin Fermi Estimate

      assignment Homework

      Spin Fermi Estimate
      Quantum Fundamentals 2022 The following two problems ask you to make Fermi estimates. In a good Fermi estimate, you start from basic scientific facts you already know or quantities that you can reasonably estimate based on your life experiences and then reason your way to estimate a quantity that you would not be able guess. You may look up useful conversion factors or constants. Use words, pictures, and equations to explain your reasoning:
      1. Imagine that you send a pea-sized bead of silver through a Stern-Gerlach device oriented to measure the z-component of intrinsic spin. Estimate the total z-component of the intrinsic spin of the ball you would measure in the HIGHLY improbable case that every atom is spin up.
      2. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are all spin-1/2 particles. Give a (very crude) order of magnitude estimate of the number of these particles in your body.
    • assignment Translating Contours

      assignment Homework

      Translating Contours
      Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

      Consider the diagram of \(T\) vs \(V\) for several different constant values of \(p\).

      1. Translate this diagram to a \(p\) vs \(V\) w/ constant \(T\) graph, including the point \(A\). Complete your graph by hand and make a fairly accurate sketch by printing out the attached grid or in some other way making nice square axes with appropriate tick marks.

      2. Are the lines that you drew straight or curved? What feature of the \(TV\) graph would have to change to change this result?

      3. Sketch the line of constant temperature that passes through the point \(A\).

      4. What are the values of all the thermodynamic variables associated with the point A?

    • group Covariation in Thermal Systems

      group Small Group Activity

      30 min.

      Covariation in Thermal Systems

      Thermo Multivariable Functions

      Students consider how changing the volume of a system changes the internal energy of the system. Students use plastic graph models to explore these functions.
  • Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 The pressure of water vapor over ice is 518 Pa at \(-2^\circ\text{C}\). The vapor pressure of water at its triple point is 611 Pa, at 0.01\(^\circ\text{C}\) (see Estimate in \(\text{J mol}^{-1}\) the heat of vaporization of ice just under freezing. How does this compare with the heat of vaporization of water?