Bottle in a Bottle

  • irreversible helium internal energy work first law
    • assignment Bottle in a Bottle 2

      assignment Homework

      Bottle in a Bottle 2
      heat entropy ideal gas Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

      Consider the bottle in a bottle problem in a previous problem set, summarized here.

      A small bottle of helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated.

      The volume of the small bottle is 0.001 m23 and the volume of the big bottle is 0.01 m3. The initial state of the gas in the small bottle was \(p=106\) Pa and its temperature \(T=300\) K. Approximate the helium gas as an ideal gas of equations of state \(pV=Nk_BT\) and \(U=\frac32 Nk_BT\).

      1. How many molecules of gas does the large bottle contain? What is the final temperature of the gas?

      2. Compute the integral \(\int \frac{{\mathit{\unicode{273}}} Q}{T}\) and the change of entropy \(\Delta S\) between the initial state (gas in the small bottle) and the final state (gas leaked in the big bottle).

      3. Discuss your results.

    • assignment Directional Derivative

      assignment Homework

      Directional Derivative
      Static Fields 2022 (4 years)

      You are on a hike. The altitude nearby is described by the function \(f(x, y)= k x^{2}y\), where \(k=20 \mathrm{\frac{m}{km^3}}\) is a constant, \(x\) and \(y\) are east and north coordinates, respectively, with units of kilometers. You're standing at the spot \((3~\mathrm{km},2~\mathrm{km})\) and there is a cottage located at \((1~\mathrm{km}, 2~\mathrm{km})\). You drop your water bottle and the water spills out.

      1. Plot the function \(f(x, y)\) and also its level curves in your favorite plotting software. Include images of these graphs. Special note: If you use a computer program written by someone else, you must reference that appropriately.
      2. In which direction in space does the water flow?
      3. At the spot you're standing, what is the slope of the ground in the direction of the cottage?
      4. Does your result to part (c) make sense from the graph?

    • face Phase transformations

      face Lecture

      120 min.

      Phase transformations
      Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020

      phase transformation Clausius-Clapeyron mean field theory thermodynamics

      These lecture notes from the ninth week of Thermal and Statistical Physics cover phase transformations, the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, mean field theory and more. They include a number of small group activities.
    • assignment Nucleus in a Magnetic Field

      assignment Homework

      Nucleus in a Magnetic Field
      Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

      Nuclei of a particular isotope species contained in a crystal have spin \(I=1\), and thus, \(m = \{+1,0,-1\}\). The interaction between the nuclear quadrupole moment and the gradient of the crystalline electric field produces a situation where the nucleus has the same energy, \(E=\varepsilon\), in the state \(m=+1\) and the state \(m=-1\), compared with an energy \(E=0\) in the state \(m=0\), i.e. each nucleus can be in one of 3 states, two of which have energy \(E=\varepsilon\) and one has energy \(E=0\).

      1. Find the Helmholtz free energy \(F = U-TS\) for a crystal containing \(N\) nuclei which do not interact with each other.

      2. Find an expression for the entropy as a function of temperature for this system. (Hint: use results of part a.)

      3. Indicate what your results predict for the entropy at the extremes of very high temperature and very low temperature.

    • grading Free expansion

      grading Quiz

      60 min.

      Free expansion
      Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

      adiabatic expansion entropy temperature ideal gas

      Students will determine the change in entropy (positive, negative, or none) for both the system and surroundings in three different cases. This is followed by an active whole-class discussion about where the entropy comes from during an irreversible process.
    • face Equipartition theorem

      face Lecture

      30 min.

      Equipartition theorem
      Contemporary Challenges 2022 (3 years)

      equipartition heat capacity

      This lecture introduces the equipartition theorem.
    • assignment Linear Quadrupole (w/ series)

      assignment Homework

      Linear Quadrupole (w/ series)

      Power Series Sequence (E&M)

      Static Fields 2022 (4 years)

      Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the \(z\)-axis: charges \(+Q\) at \(z=\pm D\) and charge \(-2Q\) at \(z=0\).

      1. Find the electrostatic potential at a point \(\vec{r}\) in the \(xy\)-plane at a distance \(s\) from the center of the quadrupole. The formula for the electrostatic potential \(V\) at a point \(\vec{r}\) due to a charge \(Q\) at the point \(\vec{r'}\) is given by: \[ V(\vec{r})=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{Q}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r'}\vert} \] Electrostatic potentials satisfy the superposition principle.
      2. Assume \(s\gg D\). Find the first two non-zero terms of a power series expansion to the electrostatic potential you found in the first part of this problem.

    • assignment Building the PDM: Instructions

      assignment Homework

      Building the PDM: Instructions
      PDM Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years) In your kits for the Portable Partial Derivative Machine should be the following:
      • A 1ft by 1ft board with 5 holes and measuring tapes (the measuring tapes will be on the top side)
      • 2 S-hooks
      • A spring with 3 strings attached
      • 2 small cloth bags
      • 4 large ball bearings
      • 8 small ball bearings
      • 2 vertical clamp pulleys
      • A ziploc bag containing
        • 5 screws
        • 5 hex nuts
        • 5 washers
        • 5 wing nuts
        • 2 horizontal pulleys
      To assemble the Portable PDM, start by placing the PDM on a table surface with the measuring tapes perpendicular to the table's edge and the board edge with 3 holes closest to you.
      1. one screw should be put through each hole so that the threads stick out through the top side of the board. Next use a hex nut to secure each screw in place. It is not critical that they be screwed on any more than you can comfortably manage by hand.
      2. After securing all 5 screws in place with a hex nut, put a washer on each screw.
      3. Slide a horizontal pulley onto screws 1 and 2 (as labeled above).
      4. On all 5 screws, add a wing nut to secure the other pieces. Again, it does not need to be tightened all the way as long as it is secure enough that nothing will fall off.
      5. Using the middle wingnut/washer/screw (Screw 4), clamp the shortest of the strings tied to the spring.
      6. Loop the remaining 2 looped-ends of string around the horizontal pulleys and along the measuring tape.
      7. Using the string as a guide, clamp the vertical pulleys into place on the edge of the board.
      8. Through the looped-end of each string, place 1 S-hook.
      9. Put the other end of each s-hook through the hole in the small cloth bag.
      Here is a poor photo of the final result, which doesn't show the two vertical pulleys. If you would like, you could view a video of the building process.
    • assignment Centrifuge

      assignment Homework

      Centrifuge
      Centrifugal potential Thermal and Statistical Physics 2020 A circular cylinder of radius \(R\) rotates about the long axis with angular velocity \(\omega\). The cylinder contains an ideal gas of atoms of mass \(M\) at temperature \(T\). Find an expression for the dependence of the concentration \(n(r)\) on the radial distance \(r\) from the axis, in terms of \(n(0)\) on the axis. Take \(\mu\) as for an ideal gas.
    • assignment Differentials of Two Variables

      assignment Homework

      Differentials of Two Variables
      Static Fields 2022 (5 years) Find the total differential of the following functions:
      1. \(y=3u^2 + 4\cos 3v\)
      2. \(y=3uv\)
      3. \(y=3u^2\cos wv\)
      4. \(y=u\cos(3v^2-2)\)
  • Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

    The internal energy of helium gas at temperature \(T\) is to a very good approximation given by \begin{align} U &= \frac32 Nk_BT \end{align}

    Consider a very irreversible process in which a small bottle of helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated. What is the change in temperature when this process is complete? How much of the helium will remain in the small bottle?

  • Media & Figures
    • figures/bottle-in-bottle_La6LbFr.svg