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##### Heat of vaporization of ice
The pressure of water vapor over ice is 518 Pa at $-2^\circ\text{C}$. The vapor pressure of water at its triple point is 611 Pa, at 0.01$^\circ\text{C}$ (see Estimate in $\text{J mol}^{-1}$ the heat of vaporization of ice just under freezing. How does this compare with the heat of vaporization of water?
• Found in: Thermal and Statistical Physics course(s)

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##### Calculation of $\frac{dT}{dp}$ for water
Calculate based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation the value of $\frac{dT}{dp}$ near $p=1\text{atm}$ for the liquid-vapor equilibrium of water. The heat of vaporization at $100^\circ\text{C}$ is $2260\text{ J g}^{-1}$. Express the result in kelvin/atm.
• Found in: Thermal and Statistical Physics course(s)

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##### Vapor pressure equation
Consider a phase transformation between either solid or liquid and gas. Assume that the volume of the gas is way bigger than that of the liquid or solid, such that $\Delta V \approx V_g$. Furthermore, assume that the ideal gas law applies to the gas phase. Note: this problem is solved in the textbook, in the section on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
1. Solve for $\frac{dp}{dT}$ in terms of the pressure of the vapor and the latent heat $L$ and the temperature.

2. Assume further that the latent heat is roughly independent of temperature. Integrate to find the vapor pressure itself as a function of temperature (and of course, the latent heat).

• Found in: Thermal and Statistical Physics course(s)

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### “Squishability” of Water Vapor (Contour Map)
Students determine the “squishibility” (an extensive compressibility) by taking $-\partial V/\partial P$ holding either temperature or entropy fixed.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Ideal Gas Model
Students consider whether the thermo surfaces reflect the properties of an ideal gas.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Heat and Temperature of Water Vapor
In this introduction to heat capacity, students determine a derivative that indicates how much the internal energy changes as the temperature changes when volume is held constant.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Changes in Internal Energy
Students consider the change in internal energy during three different processes involving a container of water vapor on a stove. Using the 1st Law of Thermodynamics, students reason about how the internal energy would change and then compare this prediction with data from NIST presented as a contour plot.

• Found in: Warm-Up sequence(s)

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Covariation in Thermal Systems
Students consider how changing the volume of a system changes the internal energy of the system. Students use plastic graph models to explore these functions.

face Lecture

120 min.

##### Phase transformations
These lecture notes from the ninth week of Thermal and Statistical Physics cover phase transformations, the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, mean field theory and more. They include a number of small group activities.

• Found in: Thermal and Statistical Physics course(s)

None

##### Power Plant on a River

At a power plant that produces 1 GW ($10^{9} \text{watts}$) of electricity, the steam turbines take in steam at a temperature of $500^{o}C$, and the waste energy is expelled into the environment at $20^{o}C$.

1. What is the maximum possible efficiency of this plant?

2. Suppose you arrange the power plant to expel its waste energy into a chilly mountain river at $15^oC$. Roughly how much money can you make in a year by installing your improved hardware, if you sell the additional electricity for 10 cents per kilowatt-hour?

3. At what rate will the plant expel waste energy into this river?

4. Assume the river's flow rate is 100 m$^{3}/$s. By how much will the temperature of the river increase?

5. To avoid this “thermal pollution” of the river the plant could instead be cooled by evaporation of river water. This is more expensive, but it is environmentally preferable. At what rate must the water evaporate? What fraction of the river must be evaporated?

• Found in: Energy and Entropy course(s)

face Lecture

30 min.

##### Energy and heat and entropy
This short lecture introduces the ideas required for Ice Calorimetry Lab or Microwave oven Ice Calorimetry Lab.

• Found in: Energy and Entropy course(s)

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

##### Quantifying Change
In this activity, students will explore how to calculate a derivative from measured data. Students should have prior exposure to differential calculus. At the start of the activity, orient the students to the contour plot - it's busy.