The internal energy of helium gas at temperature \(T\) is
to a very good approximation given by
\begin{align}
U &= \frac32 Nk_BT
\end{align}

Consider a very irreversible process in which a small bottle of
helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains
vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium
leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth
the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated. What is the
change in temperature when this process is complete? How much of the
helium will remain in the small bottle?

Consider one mole of an
ideal monatomic gas at 300K and 1 atm. First, let the gas expand
isothermally and reversibly to twice the initial volume; second, let
this be followed by an isentropic expansion from twice to four times
the original volume.

How much heat (in joules) is added to the gas in each of these two
processes?

What is the temperature at the end of the second process?

Suppose the first process is replaced by an irreversible expansion
into a vacuum, to a total volume twice the initial volume. What is
the increase of entropy in the irreversible expansion, in J/K?

Students will determine the change in entropy (positive, negative, or none) for both the system and surroundings in three different cases. This is followed by an active whole-class discussion about where the entropy comes from during an irreversible process.

Carnot refridgeratorWorkEntropyThermal and Statistical Physics 2020
A 100W light bulb is
left burning inside a Carnot refridgerator that draws 100W. Can the
refridgerator cool below room temperature?

Consider the bottle in a bottle problem in a previous problem set, summarized here.

A small bottle of
helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains
vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium
leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth
the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated.

The volume of the small bottle is 0.001 m^{23} and the volume of the big bottle is 0.01 m^{3}. The initial state of the gas in the small bottle was \(p=106\) Pa and its temperature \(T=300\) K. Approximate the helium gas as an ideal gas of equations of state \(pV=Nk_BT\) and \(U=\frac32 Nk_BT\).

How many molecules of gas does the large bottle contain? What is the final temperature of the gas?

Compute the integral \(\int \frac{{\mathit{\unicode{273}}} Q}{T}\) and the change of entropy \(\Delta S\) between the initial state (gas in the small bottle) and the final state (gas leaked in the big bottle).