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Results: thermo

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Quantifying Change (Remote)

Thermo Derivatives

In this activity, students will explore how to calculate a derivative from measured data. Students should have prior exposure to differential calculus. At the start of the activity, orient the students to the contour plot - it's busy.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Ideal Gas Model

Ideal Gas surfaces thermo

Students should be familiar with the basic definitions of pressure, volume, temperature, and internal energy.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Thermodynamic States (Remote)

Thermo

Little is needed. Some students might be bothered by thinking about entropy if it hasn't been mentioned at all in class. Try doing this activity as a follow-up to the “Changes in Internal Energy" about the first law of thermodynamics.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

``Squishability" of Water Vapor (Contour Map)

Thermo Partial Derivatives

Students determine the “squishibility” (an extensive compressibility) by taking \(-\partial V/\partial P\) holding either temperature or entropy fixed.

assignment Homework

Spring Force Constant
The spring constant \(k\) for a one-dimensional spring is defined by: \[F=k(x-x_0).\] Discuss briefly whether each of the variables in this equation is extensive or intensive.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Covariation in Thermal Systems

Thermo Multivariable Functions

Students consider how changing the volume of a system changes the internal energy of the system. Students use plastic graph models to explore these functions.

assignment Homework

Energy, Entropy, and Probabilities

The goal of this problem is to show that once we have maximized the entropy and found the microstate probabilities in terms of a Lagrange multiplier \(\beta\), we can prove that \(\beta=\frac1{kT}\) based on the statistical definitions of energy and entropy and the thermodynamic definition of temperature embodied in the thermodynamic identity.

The internal energy and entropy are each defined as a weighted average over microstates: \begin{align} U &= \sum_i E_i P_i & S &= -k_B\sum_i P_i \ln P_i \end{align}: We saw in clase that the probability of each microstate can be given in terms of a Lagrange multiplier \(\beta\) as \begin{align} P_i &= \frac{e^{-\beta E_i}}{Z} & Z &= \sum_i e^{-\beta E_i} \end{align} Put these probabilities into the above weighted averages in order to relate \(U\) and \(S\) to \(\beta\). Then make use of the thermodynamic identity \begin{align} dU = TdS - pdV \end{align} to show that \(\beta = \frac1{kT}\).

group Small Group Activity

5 min.

Heat and Temperature of Water Vapor (Remote)

Thermo Heat Capacity Partial Derivatives

In this introduction to heat capacity, students determine a derivative that indicates how much the internal energy changes as the temperature changes when volume is held constant.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Changes in Internal Energy (Remote)

Thermo Internal Energy 1st Law of Thermodynamics

Students consider the change in internal energy during three different processes involving a container of water vapor on a stove. Using the 1st Law of Thermodynamics, students reason about how the internal energy would change and then compare this prediction with data from NIST presented as a contour plot.