This set of activities explores completeness relations in quantum mechanics and how they eventually support understanding of wavefunctions and what it means to be in the position or momentum representatations.

Student explore the properties of an orthonormal basis using the Cartesian and \(S_z\) bases as examples.

Students compute the outer product of a vector on itself to product a projection operator. Students discover that projection operators are idempotent (square to themselves) and that a complete set of outer products of an orthonormal basis is the identity (a completeness relation).

Students work in small groups to use completeness relations to change the basis of quantum states.

Students review using the Arms representation to represent states for discrete quantum systems and connecting the Arms representation to histogram and matrix representation. The student then extend the Arms representation to begin exploring the continuous position basis.

In this lecture, the instructor guides a discussion about translating between bra-ket notation and wavefunction notation for quantum systems.