format_list_numbered Sequence

Completeness Relations
This set of activities explores completeness relations in quantum mechanics and how they eventually support understanding of wavefunctions and what it means to be in the position or momentum representatations.

face Lecture

10 min.

Warm-Up Powerpoint

Warm-Up

The attached powerpoint articulates the possible paths through the curriculum for new graduate students at OSU. Make sure to update this powerpoint yearly to reflect current course offerings and sequencing. It was partially, but not completely edited in fall 2022.

group Small Group Activity

10 min.

Changing Spin Bases with a Completeness Relation
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)

Completeness Relations Quantum States

Completeness Relations

Students work in small groups to use completeness relations to change the basis of quantum states.

group Small Group Activity

10 min.

Fourier Transform of a Gaussian
Periodic Systems 2022

Fourier Transforms and Wave Packets

face Lecture

30 min.

Compare & Contrast Kets & Wavefunctions

Bra-Ket Notations Wavefunction Notation Completeness Relations Probability Probability Density

Completeness Relations

In this lecture, the instructor guides a discussion about translating between bra-ket notation and wavefunction notation for quantum systems.

assignment Homework

Dimensional Analysis of Kets
dirac notation dimensions probability completeness relations

Completeness Relations

  1. \(\left\langle {\Psi}\middle|{\Psi}\right\rangle =1\) Identify and discuss the dimensions of \(\left|{\Psi}\right\rangle \).
  2. For a spin \(\frac{1}{2}\) system, \(\left\langle {\Psi}\middle|{+}\right\rangle \left\langle {+}\middle|{\Psi}\right\rangle + \left\langle {\Psi}\middle|{-}\right\rangle \left\langle {-}\middle|{\Psi}\right\rangle =1\). Identify and discuss the dimensions of \(\left|{+}\right\rangle \) and \(\left|{-}\right\rangle \).
  3. In the position basis \(\int \left\langle {\Psi}\middle|{x}\right\rangle \left\langle {x}\middle|{\Psi}\right\rangle dx = 1\). Identify and discuss the dimesions of \(\left|{x}\right\rangle \).

assignment Homework

Completeness Relation Change of Basis
change of basis spin half completeness relation dirac notation

Completeness Relations

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)
  1. Given the polar basis kets written as a superposition of Cartesian kets \begin{eqnarray*} \left|{\hat{s}}\right\rangle &=& \cos\phi \left|{\hat{x}}\right\rangle + \sin\phi \left|{\hat{y}}\right\rangle \\ \left|{\hat{\phi}}\right\rangle &=& -\sin\phi \left|{\hat{x}}\right\rangle + \cos\phi \left|{\hat{y}}\right\rangle \end{eqnarray*}

    Find the following quantities: \[\left\langle {\hat{x}}\middle|{\hat{s}}\right\rangle ,\quad \left\langle {\hat{y}}\middle|{{\hat{s}}}\right\rangle ,\quad \left\langle {\hat{x}}\middle|{\hat{\phi}}\right\rangle ,\quad \left\langle {\hat{y}}\middle|{\hat{\phi}}\right\rangle \]

  2. Given a vector written in the polar basis \[\left|{\vec{v}}\right\rangle = a\left|{\hat{s}}\right\rangle + b\left|{\hat{\phi}}\right\rangle \] where \(a\) and \(b\) are known. Find coefficients \(c\) and \(d\) such that \[\left|{\vec{v}}\right\rangle = c\left|{\hat{x}}\right\rangle + d\left|{\hat{y}}\right\rangle \] Do this by using the completeness relation: \[\left|{\hat{x}}\right\rangle \left\langle {\hat{x}}\right| + \left|{\hat{y}}\right\rangle \left\langle {\hat{y}}\right| = 1\]
  3. Using a completeness relation, change the basis of the spin-1/2 state \[\left|{\Psi}\right\rangle = g\left|{+}\right\rangle + h\left|{-}\right\rangle \] into the \(S_y\) basis. In otherwords, find \(j\) and \(k\) such that \[\left|{\Psi}\right\rangle = j\left|{+}\right\rangle _y + k\left|{-}\right\rangle _y\]

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

\(|\pm\rangle\) Forms an Orthonormal Basis
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)

Cartesian Basis $S_z$ basis completeness normalization orthogonality basis

Completeness Relations

Student explore the properties of an orthonormal basis using the Cartesian and \(S_z\) bases as examples.

assignment Homework

Bottle in a Bottle
irreversible helium internal energy work first law Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

The internal energy of helium gas at temperature \(T\) is to a very good approximation given by \begin{align} U &= \frac32 Nk_BT \end{align}

Consider a very irreversible process in which a small bottle of helium is placed inside a large bottle, which otherwise contains vacuum. The inner bottle contains a slow leak, so that the helium leaks into the outer bottle. The inner bottle contains one tenth the volume of the outer bottle, which is insulated. What is the change in temperature when this process is complete? How much of the helium will remain in the small bottle?

assignment Homework

Ring Table
Central Forces 2023 (3 years)

Attached, you will find a table showing different representations of physical quantities associated with a quantum particle confined to a ring. Fill in all of the missing entries. Hint: You may look ahead. We filled out a number of the entries throughout the table to give you hints about what the forms of the other entries might be. pdf link for the Table or doc link for the Table

assignment Homework

Translating Contours
Energy and Entropy 2021 (2 years)

Consider the diagram of \(T\) vs \(V\) for several different constant values of \(p\).

  1. Translate this diagram to a \(p\) vs \(V\) w/ constant \(T\) graph, including the point \(A\). Complete your graph by hand and make a fairly accurate sketch by printing out the attached grid or in some other way making nice square axes with appropriate tick marks.

  2. Are the lines that you drew straight or curved? What feature of the \(TV\) graph would have to change to change this result?

  3. Sketch the line of constant temperature that passes through the point \(A\).

  4. What are the values of all the thermodynamic variables associated with the point A?

group Small Group Activity

60 min.

Going from Spin States to Wavefunctions
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years)

Wavefunctions quantum states probability amplitude histograms matrix notation of quantum states Arms representation

Arms Sequence for Complex Numbers and Quantum States

Completeness Relations

Students review using the Arms representation to represent states for discrete quantum systems and connecting the Arms representation to histogram and matrix representation. The student then extend the Arms representation to begin exploring the continuous position basis.

assignment Homework

Using Gradescope (AIMS)
AIMS Maxwell 2021 (2 years)

Task: Draw a right triangle. Put a circle around the right angle, that is, the angle that is \(\frac\pi2\) radians.

Preparing your submission:

  • Complete the assignment using your choice of technology. You may write your answers on paper, write them electronically (for instance using xournal), or typeset them (for instance using LaTeX).
  • If using software, please export to PDF. If writing by hand, please scan your work using the AIMS scanner if possible. You can also use a scanning app; Gradescope offers advice and suggested apps at this URL. The preferred format is PDF; photos or JPEG scans are less easy to read (and much larger), and should be used only if no alternative is available.)
  • Please make sure that your file name includes your own name and the number of the assignment, such as "Tevian2.pdf."

Using Gradescope: We will arrange for you to have a Gradescope account, after which you should receive access instructions directly from them. To submit an assignment:

  1. Navigate to https://paradigms.oregonstate.eduhttps://www.gradescope.com and login
  2. Select the appropriate course, such as "AIMS F21". (There will likely be only one course listed.)
  3. Select the assignment called "Sample Assignment"
  4. Follow the instructions to upload your assignment. (The preferred format is PDF.)
  5. You will then be prompted to associate submitted pages with problem numbers by selecting pages on the right and questions on the left. (In this assignment, there is only one of each.) You may associate multiple problems with the same page if appropriate.
  6. When you are finished, click "Submit"
  7. After the assignments have been marked, you can log back in to see instructor comments.

group Small Group Activity

5 min.

Fourier Transform of the Delta Function
Periodic Systems 2022

Fourier Transforms and Wave Packets

Students calculate the Fourier transform of the Dirac delta function.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Outer Product of a Vector on Itself
Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (2 years)

Projection Operators Outer Products Matrices

Completeness Relations

Students compute the outer product of a vector on itself to product a projection operator. Students discover that projection operators are idempotent (square to themselves) and that a complete set of outer products of an orthonormal basis is the identity (a completeness relation).

assignment Homework

Symmetry Arguments for Gauss's Law
Static Fields 2023 (5 years)

Instructions for 2022: You will need to complete this assignment in a 15 minute appointment on Zoom or in person with one of the members of the teaching team between 1/21 and 10 pm on 1/26. Here is a link to a sign-up page.

You are required to watch a sample video for how to make symmetry arguments here. As demonstrated in the video you should bring with you to the meeting a cylinder, an observer, and a vector.

Use good symmetry arguments to find the possible direction for the electric field due to a charged wire. Also, use good symmetry arguments to find the possible functional dependence of the electric field due to a charged wire. Rather than writing this up to turn in, you should find a member of the teaching team and make the arguments to them verbally.

assignment Homework

Matrix Elements and Completeness Relations

Completeness Relations

Quantum Fundamentals 2023 (3 years)

Writing an operator in matrix notation in its own basis is easy: it is diagonal with the eigenvalues on the diagonal.

What if I want to calculate the matrix elements using a different basis??

The eigenvalue equation tells me what happens when an operator acts on its own eigenstate. For example: \(\hat{S}_y\left|{\pm}\right\rangle _y=\pm\frac{\hbar}{2}\left|{\pm}\right\rangle _y\)

In Dirac bra-ket notation, to know what an operator does to a ket, I needs to write the ket in the basis that is the eigenstates of the operator (in order to use the eigenvalue equation.)

One way to do this to stick completeness relationships into the braket: \begin{eqnarray*} \left\langle {+}\right|\hat{S_y}\left|{+}\right\rangle = \left\langle {+}\right|(I)\hat{S_y}(I)\left|{+}\right\rangle \end{eqnarray*}

where \(I\) is the identity operator: \(I=\color{blue}{\left|{+}\right\rangle _{yy}\left\langle {+}\right|}\;+\;\color{blue}{\left|{-}\right\rangle _{yy}\left\langle {-}\right|}\). This effectively rewrite the \(\left|{+}\right\rangle \) in the \(\left|{\pm}\right\rangle _y\) basis.

Find the top row matrix elements of the operator \(\hat{S}_y\) in the \(S_z\) basis by inserting completeness relations into the brakets. (The answer is already on the Spins Reference Sheet, but I want you do demonstrate the calculation.)

computer Computer Simulation

30 min.

Visualizing Flux through a Cube
Static Fields 2023 (6 years) Students explore the effects of putting a point charge at various places inside, outside, and on the surface of a cubical Gaussian surface. The Mathematica worksheet or Sage activity shows the electric field due to the charge, then plots the the flux integrand on the top surface of the box, calculates the flux through the top of the box, and the value of the flux through the whole cube.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

Calculating Coefficients for a Power Series
Theoretical Mechanics (8 years)

Taylor series power series approximation

Power Series Sequence (E&M)

This activity starts with a brief lecture introduction to power series and a short derivation of the formula for calculating the power series coefficients.

\[c_n={1\over n!}\, f^{(n)}(z_0)\]

Students use this formula to compute the power series coefficients for a \(\sin\theta\) (around both the origin and (if time allows) \(\frac{\pi}{6}\)). The meaning of these coefficients and the convergence behavior for each approximation is discussed in the whole-class wrap-up and in the follow-up activity: Visualization of Power Series Approximations.

group Small Group Activity

30 min.

DELETE Navigating a Hill
Static Fields 2023 (5 years) In this small group activity, students determine various aspects of local points on an elliptic hill which is a function of two variables. The gradient is emphasized as a local quantity which points in the direction of greatest change at a point in the scalar field.