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##### Introducing yourself to PH315
This homework question is a chance to introduce yourself to the instructional team and practice uploading hand-drawn text/figures to gradescope.
1. What name do you prefered to be called by? If you want, please share your pronouns.
2. If the pronunication of your name is possibly confusing, can you describe how I should pronounce your name?
3. Which physics classes have you completed (high school and university)? Are you taking any physics classes concurrently with this class?
4. What major(s) are you considering?
5. In this class, what is something you are looking forward to?
7. Sketch a quick drawing/diagram representing a hobby/passtime/interest that you like to pursue.

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##### Introductory Email
Send me an email briefly introducing yourself.
• What name (and pronouns, optional) do you want for me to call you in class?
• Why are you taking the course?
• What is an interesting thing about you that is not related to class?
• What is one thing that you struggled with in your life that you found a way to overcome?

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##### Isolength and Isoforce Stretchability

In class, you measured the isolength stretchability and the isoforce stretchability of your systems in the PDM. We found that for some systems these were very different, while for others they were identical.

Show with algebra (NOT experiment) that the ratio of isolength stretchability to isoforce stretchability is the same for both the left-hand side of the system and the right-hand side of the system. i.e.: \begin{align} \frac{\left(\frac{\partial {x_L}}{\partial {F_L}}\right)_{x_R}}{\left(\frac{\partial {x_L}}{\partial {F_L}}\right)_{F_R}} &= \frac{\left(\frac{\partial {x_R}}{\partial {F_R}}\right)_{x_L}}{\left(\frac{\partial {x_R}}{\partial {F_R}}\right)_{F_L}} \label{eq:ratios} \end{align}

##### Hint
You will need to make use of the cyclic chain rule: \begin{align} \left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{C} = -\left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {C}}\right)_{B}\left(\frac{\partial {C}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{A} \end{align}
##### Hint
You will also need the ordinary chain rule: \begin{align} \left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{D} = \left(\frac{\partial {A}}{\partial {C}}\right)_{D}\left(\frac{\partial {C}}{\partial {B}}\right)_{D} \end{align}

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The isothermal compressibility is defined as $$K_{T}=-\frac{1}{V} \left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial p}\right)_{T}$$ $K_T$ is be found by measuring the fractional change in volume when the the pressure is slightly changed with the temperature held constant. In contrast, the adiabatic compressibility is defined as $$K_{S}=-\frac{1}{V} \left(\frac{\partial V}{\partial p}\right)_{S}$$ and is measured by making a slight change in pressure without allowing for any heat transfer. This is the compressibility, for instance, that would directly affect the speed of sound. Show that $$\frac{K_{T}}{K_{S}} = \frac{C_{p}}{C_{V}}$$ Where the heat capacities at constant pressure and volume are given by \begin{align} C_{p} &= T \left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial T}\right)_{p} \\ C_{V} &= T \left(\frac{\partial S}{\partial T}\right)_{V} \end{align}

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##### ISW Position Measurement

A particle in an infinite square well potential has an initial state vector $\left|{\Psi(0)}\right\rangle = A\big(\left|{\phi_1}\right\rangle -\left|{\phi_2}\right\rangle +i\left|{\phi_3}\right\rangle \big)$

where $|\phi_n\rangle$ are the energy eigenstates. You have previously found $\left|{\Psi(t)}\right\rangle$ for this state.

1. Use a computer to graph the wave function $\Psi(x,t)$ and probability density $\rho(x,t)$. Choose a few interesting values of $t$ to include in your submission.

2. Use a computer to calculate the probability of measuring the particle to be near the middle of the well (within 1% on either side) as a function of time. Include both your symbolic result and a graph in your submission.

3. Choose another location in the well, different from the location above. Use a computer to calculate the probability of measuring the particle to be near your chosen location (within 1% on either side) as a function of time. Include both your symbolic result and a graph in your submission.

4. Are there any locations in the well where the probability is independent of time? Explain how you determined your answer.

5. The time dependence for a wave function like this is complicated. Write a lengthy description in words about the major features of this wave function and its probability density, how they change in time, and why they change the way they do. Comment on any interesting features you noticed that you have not already discussed in the questions above and describe any additional things you learned from the process of solving this problem.

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##### Light bulb in a refrigerator
A 100W light bulb is left burning inside a Carnot refridgerator that draws 100W. Can the refridgerator cool below room temperature?

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##### Line Sources Using Coulomb's Law
1. Find the electric field around a finite, uniformly charged, straight rod, at a point a distance $s$ straight out from the midpoint, starting from Coulomb's Law.
2. Find the electric field around an infinite, uniformly charged, straight rod, starting from the result for a finite rod.

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##### Line Sources Using the Gradient
1. Find the electric field around an infinite, uniformly charged, straight wire, starting from the following expression for the electrostatic potential: $$V(\vec r)=\frac{2\lambda}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\, \ln\left( \frac{ s_0}{s} \right)$$

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Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the $z$-axis: charges $+Q$ at $z=\pm D$ and charge $-2Q$ at $z=0$.

1. Find the electrostatic potential at a point $\vec{r}$ in the $xy$-plane at a distance $s$ from the center of the quadrupole. The formula for the electrostatic potential $V$ at a point $\vec{r}$ due to a charge $Q$ at the point $\vec{r}'$ is given by: $V(\vec{r})=\frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0} \frac{Q}{\vert \vec{r}-\vec{r}'\vert}$ Electrostatic potentials satisfy the superposition principle.

2. Assume $s\gg D$. Find the first two non-zero terms of a power series expansion to the electrostatic potential you found in the first part of this problem.

3. A series of charges arranged in this way is called a linear quadrupole. Why?

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Consider a collection of three charges arranged in a line along the $z$-axis: charges $+Q$ at $z=\pm D$ and charge $-2Q$ at $z=0$.
1. Find the electrostatic potential at a point $\vec{r}$ on the $x$-axis at a distance $x$ from the center of the quadrupole.

2. A series of charges arranged in this way is called a linear quadrupole. Why?

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##### Lines in Polar Coordinates

(Algebra involving trigonometric functions) Purpose: Practice with polar equations.

The general equation for a straight line in polar coordinates is given by: $$r(\phi)=\frac{r_0}{\cos(\phi-\delta)}$$ where $r_0$ and $\delta$ are constant parameters. Find the polar equation for the straight lines below. You do NOT need to evaluate any complicated trig or inverse trig functions. You may want to try plotting the general polar equation to figure out the roles of the parameters.

1. $y=3$
2. $x=3$
3. $y=-3x+2$

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##### Magnetic Field and Current
Consider the magnetic field $\vec{B}(s,\phi,z)= \begin{cases} 0&0\le s<a\\ \alpha \frac{1}{s}(s^4-a^4)\, \hat{\phi}&a<s<b\\ 0&s>b \end{cases}$
1. Use step and/or delta functions to write this magnetic field as a single expression valid everywhere in space.
2. Find a formula for the current density that creates this magnetic field.
3. Interpret your formula for the current density, i.e. explain briefly in words where the current is.

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##### Magnetic susceptibility

Consider a paramagnet, which is a material with $n$ spins per unit volume each of which may each be either “up” or “down”. The spins have energy $\pm mB$ where $m$ is the magnetic dipole moment of a single spin, and there is no interaction between spins. The magnetization $M$ is defined as the total magnetic moment divided by the total volume. Hint: each individual spin may be treated as a two-state system, which you have already worked with above.

1. Find the Helmholtz free energy of a paramagnetic system (assume $N$ total spins) and show that $\frac{F}{NkT}$ is a function of only the ratio $x\equiv \frac{mB}{kT}$.

2. Use the canonical ensemble (i.e. partition function and probabilities) to find an exact expression for the total magentization $M$ (which is the total dipole moment per unit volume) and the susceptibility \begin{align} \chi\equiv\left(\frac{\partial M}{\partial B}\right)_T \end{align} as a function of temperature and magnetic field for the model system of magnetic moments in a magnetic field. The result for the magnetization is \begin{align} M=nm\tanh\left(\frac{mB}{kT}\right) \end{align} where $n$ is the number of spins per unit volume. The figure shows what this magnetization looks like.

3. Show that the susceptibility is $\chi=\frac{nm^2}{kT}$ in the limit $mB\ll kT$.

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##### Mass Density
Consider a rod of length $L$ lying on the $z$-axis. Find an algebraic expression for the mass density of the rod if the mass density at $z=0$ is $\lambda_0$ and at $z=L$ is $7\lambda_0$ and you know that the mass density increases
• linearly;
• like the square of the distance along the rod;
• exponentially.

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##### Mass of a Slab

Determine the total mass of each of the slabs below.

1. A square slab of side length $L$ with thickness $h$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose mass density is given by $$\rho=A\pi\sin(\pi z/h).$$
2. A square slab of side length $L$ with thickness $h$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose mass density is given by $$\rho = 2A \Big( \Theta(z)-\Theta(z-h) \Big)$$
3. An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length $L$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose surface density is given by $\sigma=2Ah$.
4. An infinitesimally thin square sheet of side length $L$, resting on a table top at $z=0$, whose mass density is given by $\rho=2Ah\,\delta(z)$.
5. What are the dimensions of $A$?
6. Write several sentences comparing your answers to the different cases above.

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##### Mass-radius relationship for white dwarfs

Consider a white dwarf of mass $M$ and radius $R$. The dwarf consists of ionized hydrogen, thus a bunch of free electrons and protons, each of which are fermions. Let the electrons be degenerate but nonrelativistic; the protons are nondegenerate.

1. Show that the order of magnitude of the gravitational self-energy is $-\frac{GM^2}{R}$, where $G$ is the gravitational constant. (If the mass density is constant within the sphere of radius $R$, the exact potential energy is $-\frac53\frac{GM^2}{R}$).

2. Show that the order of magnitude of the kinetic energy of the electrons in the ground state is \begin{align} \frac{\hbar^2N^{\frac53}}{mR^2} \approx \frac{\hbar^2M^{\frac53}}{mM_H^{\frac53}R^2} \end{align} where $m$ is the mass of an electron and $M_H$ is the mas of a proton.

3. Show that if the gravitational and kinetic energies are of the same order of magnitude (as required by the virial theorem of mechanics), $M^{\frac13}R \approx 10^{20} \text{g}^{\frac13}\text{cm}$.

4. If the mass is equal to that of the Sun ($2\times 10^{33}g$), what is the density of the white dwarf?

5. It is believed that pulsars are stars composed of a cold degenerate gas of neutrons (i.e. neutron stars). Show that for a neutron star $M^{\frac13}R \approx 10^{17}\text{g}^{\frac13}\text{cm}$. What is the value of the radius for a neutron star with a mass equal to that of the Sun? Express the result in $\text{km}$.

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##### Matrix Elements and Completeness Relations

Writing an operator in matrix notation in its own basis is easy: it is diagonal with the eigenvalues on the diagonal.

What if I want to calculate the matrix elements using a different basis??

The eigenvalue equation tells me what happens when an operator acts on its own eigenstate. For example: $\hat{S}_y\left|{\pm}\right\rangle _y=\pm\frac{\hbar}{2}\left|{\pm}\right\rangle _y$

In Dirac bra-ket notation, to know what an operator does to a ket, I needs to write the ket in the basis that is the eigenstates of the operator (in order to use the eigenvalue equation.)

One way to do this to stick completeness relationships into the braket: \begin{eqnarray*} \left\langle {+}\right|\hat{S_y}\left|{+}\right\rangle = \left\langle {+}\right|(I)\hat{S_y}(I)\left|{+}\right\rangle \end{eqnarray*}

where $I$ is the identity operator: $I=\color{blue}{\left|{+}\right\rangle _{yy}\left\langle {+}\right|}\;+\;\color{blue}{\left|{-}\right\rangle _{yy}\left\langle {-}\right|}$. This effectively rewrite the $\left|{+}\right\rangle$ in the $\left|{\pm}\right\rangle _y$ basis.

Find the top row matrix elements of the operator $\hat{S}_y$ in the $S_z$ basis by inserting completeness relations into the brakets. (The answer is already on the Spins Reference Sheet, but I want you do demonstrate the calculation.)

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##### Measurement Probabilities
A beam of spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ particles is prepared in the initial state $\left\vert \psi\right\rangle = \sqrt{\frac{2}{5}}\; |+\rangle_x - \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}\; |-\rangle_x$(Note: this state is written in the $S_x$ basis!)
1. What are the possible results of a measurement of $S_x$, with what probabilities?
2. Repeat part a for measurements of $S_z$.

3. Suppose you start with a particle in the state given above, measure $S_x$, and happen to get $+\hbar /2$. You then take that same particle and measure $S_z$. What are the possible results and with what probability would you measure each possible result?

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##### Memorize $d\vec{r}$

Write $\vec{dr}$ in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates.

1. Rectangular: $$\vec{dr}=$$
2. Cylindrical: $$\vec{dr}=$$
3. Spherical: $$\vec{dr}=$$

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##### Memorize Power Series

Look up and memorize the power series to fourth order for $e^z$, $\sin z$, $\cos z$, $(1+z)^p$ and $\ln(1+z)$. For what values of $z$ do these series converge?

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##### Normalization of Quantum States
Show that if a linear combination of ring energy eigenstates is normalized, then the coefficients must satisfy $$\sum_{m=-\infty}^{\infty} \vert c_m\vert^2=1$$

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##### Nucleus in a Magnetic Field

Nuclei of a particular isotope species contained in a crystal have spin $I=1$, and thus, $m = \{+1,0,-1\}$. The interaction between the nuclear quadrupole moment and the gradient of the crystalline electric field produces a situation where the nucleus has the same energy, $E=\varepsilon$, in the state $m=+1$ and the state $m=-1$, compared with an energy $E=0$ in the state $m=0$, i.e. each nucleus can be in one of 3 states, two of which have energy $E=\varepsilon$ and one has energy $E=0$.

1. Find the Helmholtz free energy $F = U-TS$ for a crystal containing $N$ nuclei which do not interact with each other.

2. Find an expression for the entropy as a function of temperature for this system. (Hint: use results of part a.)

3. Indicate what your results predict for the entropy at the extremes of very high temperature and very low temperature.

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##### One-dimensional gas
Consider an ideal gas of $N$ particles, each of mass $M$, confined to a one-dimensional line of length $L$. The particles have spin zero (so you can ignore spin) and do not interact with one another. Find the entropy at temperature $T$. You may assume that the temperature is high enough that $k_B T$ is much greater than the ground state energy of one particle.

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##### Orthogonal
Consider the three quantum states: $\left\vert \psi_1\right\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{3}} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_2\right\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left\vert +\right\rangle- \frac{2}{\sqrt{5}} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_3\right\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{e^{\frac{i\pi}{4}}}{\sqrt{2}} \left\vert -\right\rangle$
1. For each of the $\vert \psi_i\rangle$ above, find the normalized vector $\vert \phi_i\rangle$ that is orthogonal to it.
2. Calculate the inner products $\langle \psi_i\vert \psi_j\rangle$ for $i$ and $j=1$, $2$, $3$.

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##### Orthogonal Brief
Consider the three quantum states: $\left\vert \psi_1\right\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{3}} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_2\right\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left\vert +\right\rangle- \frac{2}{\sqrt{5}} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_3\right\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{e^{\frac{i\pi}{4}}}{\sqrt{2}} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ For each of the $\vert \psi_i\rangle$ above, find the normalized vector $\vert \phi_i\rangle$ that is orthogonal to it.

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##### Paramagnet (multiple solutions)
We have the following equations of state for the total magnetization $M$, and the entropy $S$ of a paramagnetic system: \begin{align} M&=N\mu\, \frac{e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} - e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}} {e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} + e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}}\\ S&=Nk_B\left\{\ln 2 + \ln \left(e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}+e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}\right) +\frac{\mu B}{k_B T} \frac{e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} - e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}} {e^{\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}} + e^{-\frac{\mu B}{k_B T}}} \right\} \end{align}
1. List variables in their proper positions in the middle columns of the charts below.

2. Solve for the magnetic susceptibility, which is defined as: $\chi_B=\left(\frac{\partial M}{\partial B}\right)_T$

3. Using both the differentials (zapping with d) and chain rule diagram methods, find a chain rule for:

$\left(\frac{\partial M}{\partial B}\right)_S$

4. Evaluate your chain rule. Sense-making: Why does this come out to zero?

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##### Paramagnetism
Find the equilibrium value at temperature $T$ of the fractional magnetization $$\frac{\mu_{tot}}{Nm} \equiv \frac{2\langle s\rangle}{N}$$ of a system of $N$ spins each of magnetic moment $m$ in a magnetic field $B$. The spin excess is $2s$. The energy of this system is given by \begin{align} U &= -\mu_{tot}B \end{align} where $\mu_{tot}$ is the total magnetization. Take the entropy as the logarithm of the multiplicity $g(N,s)$ as given in (1.35 in the text): $$S(s) \approx k_B\log g(N,0) - k_B\frac{2s^2}{N}$$ for $|s|\ll N$, where $s$ is the spin excess, which is related to the magnetization by $\mu_{tot} = 2sm$. Hint: Show that in this approximation $$S(U) = S_0 - k_B\frac{U^2}{2m^2B^2N},$$ with $S_0=k_B\log g(N,0)$. Further, show that $\frac1{kT} = -\frac{U}{m^2B^2N}$, where $U$ denotes $\langle U\rangle$, the thermal average energy.

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##### Phase
1. For each of the following complex numbers $z$, find $z^2$, $\vert z\vert^2$, and rewrite $z$ in exponential form, i.e. as a magnitude times a complex exponential phase:
• $z_1=i$,

• $z_2=2+2i$,
• $z_3=3-4i$.
2. In quantum mechanics, it turns out that the overall phase for a state does not have any physical significance. Therefore, you will need to become quick at rearranging the phase of various states. For each of the vectors listed below, rewrite the vector as an overall complex phase times a new vector whose first component is real and positive. $\left|D\right\rangle\doteq \begin{pmatrix} 7e^{i\frac{\pi}{6}}\\ 3e^{i\frac{\pi}{2}}\\ -1\\ \end{pmatrix}\\ \left|E\right\rangle\doteq \begin{pmatrix} i\\ 4\\ \end{pmatrix}\\ \left|F\right\rangle\doteq \begin{pmatrix} 2+2i\\ 3-4i\\ \end{pmatrix}$

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##### Phase 2
Consider the three quantum states: $\left\vert \psi_1\right\rangle = \frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_2\right\rangle = \frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle- i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle$ $\left\vert \psi_3\right\rangle = -\frac{4}{5}\left\vert +\right\rangle+ i\frac{3}{5} \left\vert -\right\rangle$
1. For each of the $\left|{\psi_i}\right\rangle$ above, calculate the probabilities of spin component measurements along the $x$, $y$, and $z$-axes.
2. Look For a Pattern (and Generalize): Use your results from $(a)$ to comment on the importance of the overall phase and of the relative phases of the quantum state vector.

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##### Photo Permission

In the "Quizzes" section of Canvas, please fill out the "Photo Permission Form" to indicate what information you'd like me to post about you on the Physics Department Website.

Faculty & Students use this site to learn who is taking Paradigms and to network.

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##### Photon carnot engine

In our week on radiation, we saw that the Helmholtz free energy of a box of radiation at temperature $T$ is \begin{align} F &= -8\pi \frac{V(kT)^4}{h^3c^3}\frac{\pi^4}{45} \end{align} From this we also found the internal energy and entropy \begin{align} U &= 24\pi \frac{(kT)^4}{h^3c^3}\frac{\pi^4}{45} V \\ S &= 32\pi kV\left(\frac{kT}{hc}\right)^3 \frac{\pi^4}{45} \end{align} Given these results, let us consider a Carnot engine that uses an empty metalic piston (i.e. a photon gas).

1. Given $T_H$ and $T_C$, as well as $V_1$ and $V_2$ (the two volumes at $T_H$), determine $V_3$ and $V_4$ (the two volumes at $T_C$).

2. What is the heat $Q_H$ taken up and the work done by the gas during the first isothermal expansion? Are they equal to each other, as for the ideal gas?

3. Does the work done on the two isentropic stages cancel each other, as for the ideal gas?

4. Calculate the total work done by the gas during one cycle. Compare it with the heat taken up at $T_H$ and show that the energy conversion efficiency is the Carnot efficiency.

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##### Polar vs. Spherical Coordinates
Show that the plane polar coordinates are equivalent to spherical coordinates if we make the choices:
1. The direction of $\theta=0$ in spherical coordinates is the same as the direction of out of the plane in plane polar coordinates.
2. Given the correspondance above, then if we choose the $\theta$ of spherical coordinates is to be $\pi/2$, we restrict to the equatorial plane of spherical coordinates.

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##### Potential energy of gas in gravitational field
Consider a column of atoms each of mass $M$ at temperature $T$ in a uniform gravitational field $g$. Find the thermal average potential energy per atom. The thermal average kinetic energy is independent of height. Find the total heat capacity per atom. The total heat capacity is the sum of contributions from the kinetic energy and from the potential energy. Take the zero of the gravitational energy at the bottom $h=0$ of the column. Integrate from $h=0$ to $h=\infty$. You may assume the gas is ideal.

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##### Potential vs. Potential Energy

In this course, two of the primary examples we will be using are the potential due to gravity and the potential due to an electric charge. Both of these forces vary like $\frac{1}{r}$, so they will have many, many similarities. Most of the calculations we do for the one case will be true for the other. But there are some extremely important differences:

1. Find the value of the electrostatic potential energy of a system consisting of a hydrogen nucleus and an electron separated by the Bohr radius. Find the value of the gravitational potential energy of the same two particles at the same radius. Use the same system of units in both cases. Compare and the contrast the two answers.
2. Find the value of the electrostatic potential due to the nucleus of a hydrogen atom at the Bohr radius. Find the gravitational potential due to the nucleus at the same radius. Use the same system of units in both cases. Compare and contrast the two answers.
3. Briefly discuss at least one other fundamental difference between electromagnetic and gravitational systems. Hint: Why are we bound to the earth gravitationally, but not electromagnetically?

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##### Power from the Ocean

It has been proposed to use the thermal gradient of the ocean to drive a heat engine. Suppose that at a certain location the water temperature is $22^\circ$C at the ocean surface and $4^{o}$C at the ocean floor.

1. What is the maximum possible efficiency of an engine operating between these two temperatures?

2. If the engine is to produce 1 GW of electrical power, what minimum volume of water must be processed every second? Note that the specific heat capacity of water $c_p = 4.2$ Jg$^{-1}$K$^{-1}$ and the density of water is 1 g cm$^{-3}$, and both are roughly constant over this temperature range.

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##### Power Plant on a River

At a power plant that produces 1 GW ($10^{9} \text{watts}$) of electricity, the steam turbines take in steam at a temperature of $500^{o}C$, and the waste energy is expelled into the environment at $20^{o}C$.

1. What is the maximum possible efficiency of this plant?

2. Suppose you arrange the power plant to expel its waste energy into a chilly mountain river at $15^oC$. Roughly how much money can you make in a year by installing your improved hardware, if you sell the additional electricity for 10 cents per kilowatt-hour?

3. At what rate will the plant expel waste energy into this river?

4. Assume the river's flow rate is 100 m$^{3}/$s. By how much will the temperature of the river increase?

5. To avoid this “thermal pollution” of the river the plant could instead be cooled by evaporation of river water. This is more expensive, but it is environmentally preferable. At what rate must the water evaporate? What fraction of the river must be evaporated?

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##### Power Series Coefficients A
Use the formula for a Taylor series: $f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} \frac{d^n f(a)}{dz^n} (z-a)^n$ to find the series expansion for $f(z)=e^{-kz}$ to second order around $z=3$.

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##### Power Series Coefficients B
Use the formula for a Taylor series: $f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} \frac{d^n f(a)}{dz^n} (z-a)^n$ to find the series expansion for $f(z)=\cos(kz)$ to second order around $z=2$.

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##### Pressure and entropy of a degenerate Fermi gas
1. Show that a Fermi electron gas in the ground state exerts a pressure \begin{align} p = \frac{\left(3\pi^2\right)^{\frac23}}{5} \frac{\hbar^2}{m}\left(\frac{N}{V}\right)^{\frac53} \end{align} In a uniform decrease of the volume of a cube every orbital has its energy raised: The energy of each orbital is proportional to $\frac1{L^2}$ or to $\frac1{V^{\frac23}}$.

2. Find an expression for the entropy of a Fermi electron gas in the region $kT\ll \varepsilon_F$. Notice that $S\rightarrow 0$ as $T\rightarrow 0$.

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(modified from K&K 4.6) We discussed in class that \begin{align} p &= -\left(\frac{\partial F}{\partial V}\right)_T \end{align} Use this relationship to show that

1. \begin{align} p &= -\sum_j \langle n_j\rangle\hbar \left(\frac{d\omega_j}{dV}\right), \end{align} where $\langle n_j\rangle$ is the number of photons in the mode $j$;

2. Solve for the relationship between pressure and internal energy.

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##### Properties of Logarithms and Exponents
1. Simplify the following expressions:
1. $\ln{x}+\ln{y}$

2. $\ln{a}-\ln{b}$

3. $2\ln{f}+3\ln{f}$

4. $e^{m}e^{k}$

5. $\frac{e^{c}}{e^{d}}$

2. Expand the following expressions:
1. $e^{(3h-j)}$

2. $e^{2(c+w)}$

3. $\ln{h/g}$

4. $\ln(kT)$

5. $\ln{\sqrt{\frac{q}{r}}}$

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##### QF Project and Reflection
Submit your video on Canvas. After you submit your video, complete the reflection questions for the course on Gradescope.

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##### Quantum concentration
Consider one particle confined to a cube of side $L$; the concentration in effect is $n=L^{-3}$. Find the kinetic energy of the particle when in the ground state. There will be a value of the concentration for which this zero-point quantum kinetic energy is equal to the temperature $kT$. (At this concentration the occupancy of the lowest orbital is of the order of unity; the lowest orbital always has a higher occupancy than any other orbital.) Show that the concentration $n_0$ thus defined is equal to the quantum concentration $n_Q$ defined by (63): $$n_Q \equiv \left(\frac{MkT}{2\pi\hbar^2}\right)^{\frac32}$$ within a factor of the order of unity.

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##### Quantum harmonic oscillator
1. Find the entropy of a set of $N$ oscillators of frequency $\omega$ as a function of the total quantum number $n$. Use the multiplicity function: $$g(N,n) = \frac{(N+n-1)!}{n!(N-1)!}$$ and assume that $N\gg 1$. This means you can make the Sitrling approximation that $\log N! \approx N\log N - N$. It also means that $N-1 \approx N$.

2. Let $U$ denote the total energy $n\hbar\omega$ of the oscillators. Express the entropy as $S(U,N)$. Show that the total energy at temperature $T$ is $$U = \frac{N\hbar\omega}{e^{\frac{\hbar\omega}{kT}}-1}$$ This is the Planck result found the hard way. We will get to the easy way soon, and you will never again need to work with a multiplicity function like this.

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##### Quantum Particle in a 2-D Box
You know that the normalized spatial eigenfunctions for a particle in a 1-D box of length $L$ are $\sqrt{\frac{2}{L}}\sin{\frac{n\pi x}{L}}$. If you want the eigenfunctions for a particle in a 2-D box, then you just multiply together the eigenfunctions for a 1-D box in each direction. (This is what the separation of variables procedure tells you to do.)
1. Find the normalized eigenfunctions for a particle in a 2-D box with sides of length $L_x$ in the $x$-direction and length $L_y$ in the $y$-direction.
2. Find the Hamiltonian for a 2-D box and show that your eigenstates are indeed eigenstates and find a formula for the possible energies
3. Any sufficiently smooth spatial wave function inside a 2-D box can be expanded in a double sum of the product wave functions, i.e. $$\psi(x,y)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\, c_{nm}\; \hbox{eigenfunction}_n(x)\;\hbox{eigenfunction}_m(y)$$ Using your expressions from part (a) above, write out all the terms in this sum out to $n=3$, $m=3$. Arrange the terms, conventionally, in terms of increasing energy.

You may find it easier to work in bra/ket notation: \begin{align*} \left|{\psi}\right\rangle &=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\, c_{nm}\left|{n}\right\rangle \left|{m}\right\rangle \\ &=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\, c_{nm}\left|{nm}\right\rangle \end{align*}

4. Find a formula for the $c_{nm}$s in part (b). Find the formula first in bra ket notation and then rewrite it in wave function notation.

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##### Radiation in an empty box

As discussed in class, we can consider a black body as a large box with a small hole in it. If we treat the large box a metal cube with side length $L$ and metal walls, the frequency of each normal mode will be given by: \begin{align} \omega_{n_xn_yn_z} &= \frac{\pi c}{L}\sqrt{n_x^2 + n_y^2 + n_z^2} \end{align} where each of $n_x$, $n_y$, and $n_z$ will have positive integer values. This simply comes from the fact that a half wavelength must fit in the box. There is an additional quantum number for polarization, which has two possible values, but does not affect the frequency. Note that in this problem I'm using different boundary conditions from what I use in class. It is worth learning to work with either set of quantum numbers. Each normal mode is a harmonic oscillator, with energy eigenstates $E_n = n\hbar\omega$ where we will not include the zero-point energy $\frac12\hbar\omega$, since that energy cannot be extracted from the box. (See the Casimir effect for an example where the zero point energy of photon modes does have an effect.)

Note
This is a slight approximation, as the boundary conditions for light are a bit more complicated. However, for large $n$ values this gives the correct result.

1. Show that the free energy is given by \begin{align} F &= 8\pi \frac{V(kT)^4}{h^3c^3} \int_0^\infty \ln\left(1-e^{-\xi}\right)\xi^2d\xi \\ &= -\frac{8\pi^5}{45} \frac{V(kT)^4}{h^3c^3} \\ &= -\frac{\pi^2}{45} \frac{V(kT)^4}{\hbar^3c^3} \end{align} provided the box is big enough that $\frac{\hbar c}{LkT}\ll 1$. Note that you may end up with a slightly different dimensionless integral that numerically evaluates to the same result, which would be fine. I also do not expect you to solve this definite integral analytically, a numerical confirmation is fine. However, you must manipulate your integral until it is dimensionless and has all the dimensionful quantities removed from it!

2. Show that the entropy of this box full of photons at temperature $T$ is \begin{align} S &= \frac{32\pi^5}{45} k V \left(\frac{kT}{hc}\right)^3 \\ &= \frac{4\pi^2}{45} k V \left(\frac{kT}{\hbar c}\right)^3 \end{align}

3. Show that the internal energy of this box full of photons at temperature $T$ is \begin{align} \frac{U}{V} &= \frac{8\pi^5}{15}\frac{(kT)^4}{h^3c^3} \\ &= \frac{\pi^2}{15}\frac{(kT)^4}{\hbar^3c^3} \end{align}

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##### Reduced Mass

(Simple graphing) Purpose: Discover some of the properties of reduced mass by exploring the graph.

Using your favorite graphing package, make a plot of the reduced mass $$\mu=\frac{m_1\, m_2}{m_1+m_2}$$ as a function of $m_1$ and $m_2$. What about the shape of this graph tells you something about the physical world that you would like to remember? You should be able to find at least three things. Hint: Think limiting cases.

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##### Ring Function
Consider the normalized wavefunction $\Phi\left(\phi\right)$ for a quantum mechanical particle of mass $\mu$ constrained to move on a circle of radius $r_0$, given by: $$\Phi\left(\phi\right)= \frac{N}{2+\cos(3\phi)}$$ where $N$ is the normalization constant.
1. Find $N$.

2. Plot this wave function.
3. Plot the probability density.
4. Find the probability that if you measured $L_z$ you would get $3\hbar$.
5. What is the expectation value of $L_z$ in this state?

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##### Ring Table

Attached, you will find a table showing different representations of physical quantities associated with a quantum particle confined to a ring. Fill in all of the missing entries. Hint: You may look ahead. We filled out a number of the entries throughout the table to give you hints about what the forms of the other entries might be. pdf link for the Table or doc link for the Table

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##### Rubber Sheet

Consider a hanging rectangular rubber sheet. We will consider there to be two ways to get energy into or out of this sheet: you can either stretch it vertically or horizontally. The distance of vertical stretch we will call $y$, and the distance of horizontal stretch we will call $x$.

If I pull the bottom down by a small distance $\Delta y$, with no horizontal force, what is the resulting change in width $\Delta x$? Express your answer in terms of partial derivatives of the potential energy $U(x,y)$.